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Journal Article

Robustness Testing of Real-Time Automotive Systems Using Sequence Covering Arrays

2013-04-08
2013-01-1228
Testing real-time vehicular systems challenges the tester to design test cases for concurrent and sequential input events, emulating unexpected user and usage profiles. The vehicle response should be robust to unexpected user actions. Sequence Covering Arrays (SCA) offer an approach which can emulate such unexpected user actions by generating an optimized set of test vectors which cover all possible t-way sequences of events. The objective of this research was to find an efficient nonfunctional sequence testing (NFST) strategy for testing the robustness of real-time automotive embedded systems measured by their ability to recover (prove-out test) after applying sequences of user and usage patterns generated by combinatorial test algorithms, considered as “noisy” inputs. The method was validated with a case study of an automotive embedded system tested at Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) level. The random sequences were able to alter the system functionality observed at the prove-out test.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Thin Water Film Stability and Its Characteristics in SLD Icing Problem

2011-06-13
2011-38-0064
The objective of this work is to investigate the thin water film characteristics by performing a range of experiments for different icing conditions. Our focus is on the SLD conditions where the droplets are larger and other effects like splashing and re-impingement could occur. Three features for the thin water film have been studied experimentally: the water film velocity, wave celerity and its wavelength. The experiments are performed in the icing facilities at Cranfiled University. The stability of the water film for the different conditions has been studied to find a threshold for transient from continues water film to non-continues form. A new semi-empirical method is introduced to estimate the water film thickness based on the experimental data of water film velocity in combination of theoretical analysis of water film dynamics. The outcome of this work could be implemented in SLD icing simulation but more analysis is needed.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0433
Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Technical Paper

Potential for Fuel Economy Improvements by Reducing Frictional Losses in a Pushing Metal V-Belt CVT

2004-03-08
2004-01-0481
This paper gives an overview of the development of a number of loss models for the pushing metal V-belt CVT. These were validated using a range of experimental data collected from two test rigs. There are several contributions to the torque losses and new models have been developed that are based upon relative motion between belt components and pulley deflections. Belt slip models will be proposed based upon published theory, expanded to take account of new findings from this work. The paper introduces a number of proposals to improve the efficiency of the transmission based on redesign of the belt geometry and other techniques to reduce frictional losses between components. These proposed efficiency improvements have been modelled and substituted into a complete vehicle simulation to show improvements in vehicle fuel economy over a standard European drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Translating Environmental Legislation into the Engineering Design Domain

2004-03-08
2004-01-0248
The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a case study on how an Original Equipment Manufacturer's technical design center translates and integrates legislative environmental requirements into their product range. The integration of these environmental requirements during the conceptual design phase, where the significant proportion of resources is committed, is of utmost importance. Additionally, with increasing levels of product development being conducted by the first-tier suppliers, there is greater emphasis on the Original Equipment Manufacturer, who controls the product specifications, for translating and filtering the environmental requirements down the supply chain. A Requirements Management based model addressing environmental issues is described.
Technical Paper

Development of a Broad Delta Airframe and Propulsion Concepts for Reducing Aircraft Noise around Airports

2007-09-17
2007-01-3806
This paper describes the impact of noise on the civil aircraft design process. The challenge to design ‘silent’ aircraft is the development of efficient airframe-engine technologies, for which integration is essential to produce an optimum aircraft, otherwise penalties such as higher fuel consumption, and, or noise are a concern. A description of work completed by Cranfield University will cover design methodologies used for a Broad delta airframe concept, with reference to future studies into alternate concepts. Engine cycle designs for ultra-high bypass ratio, constant volume combustor, and recuperated propulsion cycles are described, with a discussion of integration challenges within the airframe.
Technical Paper

Contrail Avoidance Project Summary

2007-09-17
2007-01-3808
As aviation is one of the fastest growing industrial sector world wide, air-traffic emissions are projected to increase their stake in the contribution to global warming. According to recent studies, both CO2 and contrails will be the principal air-traffic pollutants. Since the environmental impact of contrails is potentially larger, their avoidance is becoming discussed in the aeronautical community. Work on this topic has been carried out at Cranfield University in form of a PhD project. A project summary is given in this paper where contrail avoidance strategies and the different aspects of contrail avoidance are highlighted. The first section provides an overview on the formation principles of contrails based on a literature review. Different technologies are given in the second part, and their introduction is discussed in the last section.
Technical Paper

Transient Aerodynamic Characteristics of Simple Vehicle Shapes by the Measurement of Surface Pressures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0876
Transient force and surface pressure data has been measured on a range of simple geometric shapes in order to gain an understanding of the complex time dependent and separated flow around a vehicle when subjected to a crosswind. The experiments were carried out using the Cranfield University model crosswind facility. It is found that the leeward face is the dominant area of transient activity. Maximum and minimum peak yawing moments at gust entry and exit are compared
Technical Paper

A Model of Deploying Engineering Capability of Aerospace Suppliers in Producibility Analysis

1999-06-05
1999-01-2298
Aerospace companies have formed integrated product teams to improve their new product introduction process. Where significant components are outsourced, the suppliers’ expertise should be harnessed for a “win-win” solution to benefit both customer and supplier. CE practices for remote team work have been developed and used in a component engineering contract between a customer-supplier pair in the United Kingdom. Details of the producibility interaction dialogue between design team and supplier production engineers were captured. The resulting model represents the deployment of engineering capability of aerospace suppliers. It supports the setting up of CE projects with subcontract engineering work and is a reference for suppliers to develop their design/engineering capability.
Technical Paper

Applying a Concept for Robot-Human Cooperation to Aerospace Equipping Processes

2011-10-18
2011-01-2655
Significant effort has been applied to the introduction of automation for the structural assembly of aircraft. However, the equipping of the aircraft with internal services such as hydraulics, fuel, bleed-air and electrics and the attachment of movables such as ailerons and flaps remains almost exclusively manual and little research has been directed towards it. The problem is that the process requires lengthy assembly methods and there are many complex tasks which require high levels of dexterity and judgement from human operators. The parts used are prone to tolerance stack-ups, the tolerance for mating parts is extremely tight (sub-millimetre) and access is very poor. All of these make the application of conventional automation almost impossible. A possible solution is flexible metrology assisted collaborative assembly. This aims to optimise the assembly processes by using a robot to position the parts whilst an operator performs the fixing process.
Journal Article

Applying Design for Assembly Principles in Computer Aided Design to Make Small Changes that Improve the Efficiency of Manual Aircraft Systems Installations

2014-09-16
2014-01-2266
The installation of essential systems into aircraft wings involves numerous labour-intensive processes. Many human operators are required to perform complex manual tasks over long periods of time in very challenging physical positions due to the limited access and confined space. This level of human activity in poor ergonomic conditions directly impacts on speed and quality of production but also, in the longer term, can cause costly human resource problems from operators' cumulative development of musculoskeletal injuries. These problems are exacerbated in areas of the wing which house multiple systems components because the volume of manual work and number of operators is higher but the available space is reduced. To improve the efficiency of manual work processes which cannot yet be automated we therefore need to consider how we might redesign systems installations in the enclosed wing environment to better enable operator access and reduce production time.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Far-Field Aerodynamic Wake Development for Three DrivAer Model Configurations using a Cost-Effective RANS Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1514
The flow field and body aerodynamic loads on the DrivAer reference model have been extensively investigated since its introduction in 2012. However, there is a relative lack of information relating to the models wake development resulting from the different rear-body configurations, particularly in the far-field. Given current interest in the aerodynamic interaction between two or more vehicles, the results from a preliminary CFD study are presented to address the development of the wake from the Fastback, Notchback, and Estateback DrivAer configurations. The primary focus is on the differences in the far-field wake and simulations are assessed in the range up to three vehicle lengths downstream, at Reynolds and Mach numbers of 5.2×106 and 0.13, respectively. Wake development is modelled using the results from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation within a computational mesh having nominally 1.0×107 cells.
Technical Paper

Preview based Vehicle Steering Control using Neural Networks

2013-04-08
2013-01-0409
The motion of a vehicle along a desired path is possible due to steering action of the driver. Hence, vehicle dynamics and control simulations should take into consideration the action of the driver. This work presents a preview based vehicle steering controller using Neural Networks which can be used in the vehicle lateral dynamics simulations. The training data for the Neural Network is being obtained using a steering controller from the existing literature and its gains are determined using Optimization. Three different architectures are being designed and conclusions are presented. These Neural Network models are validated by testing against real track data.
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