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Technical Paper

Cavitation Intensity Measurements for Internal Combustion Engines

1996-02-01
960884
Recent engine design trends towards increasing power, reducing weight, advancing of injection timing and increasing of injection rate and pressure could result in increased incidence of liner pitting. Liner pitting due to coolant cavitation is a complex function of many engine design parameters and operating conditions as described in reference [1]*. Traditionally, liner cavitation problems were not detected early in the development cycle. Traditional liner vibration and coolant pressure measurements in conjunction with a numerous amount of expensive engine endurance tests were then needed to resolve cavitation problems. A method newly developed by the author and described in reference [2] for cavitation intensity measurements was successfully utilized to map out engine operating condition and develop limit curves. This method could also be applied in a non intrusive fashion.
Technical Paper

Real Time Captivation Detection Method

1996-02-01
960878
Cavitation corrosion is a very complex phenomenon that is governed by a formidable amount of factors and parameters. The phenomenon is a multi-disciplinary one which involves several aspects of physical sciences and engineering. This process is a slow progressive phenomenon with its detrimental effects being felt after severe damage has already occurred. A real time detection method for the severity of fluid cavitation and bubble collapse is described. The results are correlated to dynamic instantaneous pressure fluctuation measurements. The method is fast, reliable, and less restrictive of the sensing location. It has been tested and verified through a specially designed cavitation test rig and instrumentation setup. The method can be used for cavitation studies on ultrasonic bench rig tests and for cavitation measurements on running engines. The method was used to shed some light on characteristic cavitation differences between water and glycol which is used in engine coolants.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Measured and Theoretical Inter-Ring Gas Pressure on a Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
961909
Inter-ring gas pressure and piston ring motion are considered important for the control of oil consumption, particulate emissions, and reduced friction. For this reason, inter-ring gas pressure was measured on a diesel engine. Two different ring pack configurations were tested (positive and negative twist second rings). A significant difference in measured inter-ring pressure was observed. The measurements were compared to the predictions of a cylinder kit model with favorable results. Predictions showed that the observed difference between measured inter-ring pressures is caused by a significant difference in ring motion. The reasons for these differences are explained in this paper.
Technical Paper

Experimental Results on the Effect of Piston Surface Roughness and Porosity on Diesel Engine Combustion

1996-02-01
960036
Measurements have been made to determine the effect of piston crown surface properties on combustion. Back-to-back engine tests were conducted to compare surface modified pistons to a production piston. Each modified piston was found to prolong combustion duration. Porous coatings and a non porous, roughened piston were observed to increase fuel consumption. Increase in fuel consumption was determined to be the result of increased heat release duration. The data show surface roughness alone affects the duration of heat release. The shift in magnitude of the centroid of heat release was similar to the shift observed in insulated engine experiments.
Technical Paper

The Piston Ring Shape and Its Effects on Engine Performance

1996-02-01
960052
The paper presents the latest research results on the piston ring free shape. A new free shape measurement method with optical gauging was developed. Three numerical models to compute the contact force distribution of piston ring were developed using finite element analysis (FEA). These numerical methods have been compared each other, and validated with the experimental results of ring deformation in a ring gage. The contact force distribution of a piston ring at working condition was also studied. It consists of the ring thermal boundary conditions (RTBC) validation, 3-D FEA thermal analysis and thermal contact force computation based on validated wire-cable element model. The RTBC for heavy duty diesel engine has been validated for the first time using a CUMMINS L10 engine test. Three different free shapes have been tested. The wear band measurements of tested rings all show tremendous improvements over the standard top ring.
Technical Paper

New Piston Telemetry Applied to Spherical Joint Piston Development

1996-02-01
960056
A new telemetry system has been developed for temperature or strain measurements on a spherical joint piston. The system includes a piston mounted signal multiplexer and transmitter. A patented, piston mounted power generator operates in conjunction witii a modified cylinder liner. The telemetry system is robust, having high inertia load capability and high environmental temperature operating capability. The telemetry system was installed and operated on an engine motoring test rig. Temperature signals were transmitted at engine speeds from 400 rpm to 2100 rpm. Over 100 hours of high engine speed testing with oil sump temperatures up to 122°C were completed.
Technical Paper

A Powertrain Simulation for Engine Control System Development

1996-10-01
962171
A dynamic simulation of a school bus powertrain has been constructed for the purpose of assisting in the development of engine control strategies. With some extensions, this model can also be used as a first approximation to support the development of transmission shift control strategies, predict vehicle performance and drivability as well as estimate transient loads on the powertrain components. The simulation was constructed using the Matlab* computing environment along with the Simulink* toolbox, a package for the graphical development of dynamic simulation models. The vehicle model was validated against test data measured in the target vehicle powered by a natural gas engine to ensure that the simulation model yielded sensible predictions of the dynamic powertrain behavior. Equipped with a validated model, the control engineer can now use the simulation tool to assist in algorithm development. Sample applications are illustrated.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Raising Specific Output of a Highly Rated DI Diesel Truck Engine on its Performance and Emissions

1989-02-01
890263
A study was undertaken to establish what happens to engine emissions, and to turbocharger and injection pressure requirements, as the specific output is raised. For any given engine package, increasing specific output increases injection pressures while reducing air/fuel ratios. Thus, if the highly rated engine must satisfy the same design constraints, then raising the engine operating torque by only 10% resulted in more than 30% increase in total particulates! However, the same emission levels may be maintained if increases in specific output are accompanied by changes to engine design so as to maintain the air-fuel mixing parameters, specifically air/fuel ratio and injection pressures, throughout the entire engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Testing Procedures for Introduction of Silicon Carbide and Carbon Water Pump Seal Faces into Heavy Duty Diesel Service

1993-03-01
930585
Testing procedures to evaluate new coolant pump seal face materials and new coolant pump seal designs were evaluated. Rig testing of materials and seals followed by engine dynamometer testing enabled changes in the seal materials or design to be validated prior to field testing and limited production. These procedures were used to test and implement a coolant pump seal face material change to silicon carbide versus carbon. The change resulted in higher reliability for the coolant pump seal and reduced warranty cost for the engine.
Technical Paper

Cooling Higher Horsepower Highway Diesel Engines

1975-02-01
750131
The increase in power-to-weight ratio that results from the use of higher-horsepower diesel engines in highway service prompted this study of engine cooling. This paper covers the results obtained in testing different power-to-weight ratios on grades from sea level to over 11,000 ft and compares these results with those obtained from chassis and towing dynamometer cooling trials.
Technical Paper

Crankshaft Design Using a Generalized Finite Element Model

1979-02-01
790279
An analytical tool for the efficient analysis of crankshaft designs has been developed. Finite element models are generated from a limited number of key dimensions which describe a family of crankshafts. These models have been verified by stress and deflection measurements on several crankshaft throws.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Studies of Cylinder Head Cooling

1993-04-01
931122
Previous work on the cooling jackets of the Cummins L10 engine revealed flow separation, and low coolant velocities in several critical regions of the cylinder head. The current study involved the use of detailed cooling jacket temperature measurements, and finite element heat transfer analysis to attempt the identification of regions of pure convection, nucleate boiling, and film boiling. Although difficult to detect with certainty, both the measurements and analysis pointed strongly to the presence of nucleate boiling in several regions. Little or no evidence of film boiling was seen, even under very high operating loads. It was thus concluded that the regions of seemingly inadequate coolant flow remained quite effective in controlling cylinder head temperatures. The Cummins L10 upon which this study has focused is an in-line six cylinder, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine, with a displacement of 10 liters.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Lucas Combustion Noise Meter on Cummins ‘B’ Series Engines

1987-08-01
870952
Lucas Industries Noise Centre has introduced a combustion noise meter which is designed to predict the contribution of the combustion process to overall diesel engine noise. The performance of the meter is evaluated using Cummins B series engines in naturally-aspirated and turbocharged form. Combustion noise levels predicted by the meter are compared to levels determined using traditional techniques. The effects of several engine operating parameters on combustion noise are investigated under both steady state and accelerating conditions. The meter reliably predicts changes in combustion noise levels, and is a useful tool for performance development engineers. Combustion noise is shown to be related to the maximum rate of pressure rise at the onset of combustion, but combustion noise is not reliably related to maximum cylinder pressures.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Component Analysis for Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1989-09-01
891900
Detailed thermal analysis was conducted on several advanced cylinder head, liner, and piston concepts, for low heat rejection diesel engines. The analysis was used to define an optimized engine configuration. Results pointed to the strategic use of oil cooling and insulation in the cylinder head, an oil cooled cylinder liner, and an insulated piston, with separate insulation behind the compression rings. Such a configuration reduced in-cylinder heat rejection by 30 percent, while durability would be expected to be maintained or improved from today's production levels.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Component Design Using the Finite Element Method and Interactive Graphics

1974-02-01
740337
An inexpensive, flexible and convenient finite element analysis system can be implemented with limited capital and resources. A system of this nature can be a functional tool of the designer and stress analyst for the analysis of many types of mechanical components. The finite element models generated by this system can approach a high degree of complexity with a small time investment compared to the time required to do this job without the aid of the system described.
Technical Paper

Design Aspects of Low-Noise Diesel Engines

1973-02-01
730246
Methods of reducing the noise level of a diesel engine include the suppression of the major modes of block vibration and treatment of the external surfaces. Design methods enable the frequencies and noise levels of these modes to be calculated for a conventionally designed engine. The important modes of vibration, the noise signature and the effect of block modifications of a standard production V-8 engine were found by experiments. These provided the basis for the design of an experimental low-noise engine. Design features include a suffer block, removal of the bottom part of the crankcase skirt, the addition of a single bearing beam, and the use of isolated panels and damped surfaces. The noise reduction obtained was 9 dBA. Most of this is due to the use of isolated and damped nonload carrying surfaces.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Emulsified Fuels and Water Induction on Diesel Combustion

1970-02-01
700736
Water was inducted with the intake air and injected emulsified with the fuel, in a conventional single cylinder D.I. diesel engine. The major effects of inducted water were an increase in ignition delay, and reduction in the oxides of nitrogen and smoke at a constant fuel/air ratio. When the water was emulsified with the fuel, the ignition delay increased so much that no benefits were obtained except for a reduction in smoke. The results are compared to a similar study on an engine with the “M” combustion system. The major differences between the results obtained with the two combustion systems are attributed to the differences in the ignition delay caused by the water addition.
Technical Paper

Design Factors That Affect Diesel Emissions

1971-02-01
710484
Although diesels, as a group, are a relatively small source of air pollutants, emissions standards which limit emissions from diesels have been adopted by California and the federal government. Test procedures and instrumentation for measuring diesel emissions have been developed, and an understanding of how engine design parameters affect emissions is evolving. Smoke and carbon monoxide are primarily functions of fuel-air ratio. Smoke is also affected by injection timing, air motion, and fuel spray characteristics. Hydrocarbon emissions are most affected by details of injector design and matching of the spray geometry with the combustion chamber shape. Nitric oxide emissions are controlled by local oxygen availability in regions of high temperature and residence time at the high temperature.
Technical Paper

Lube Oil Filtration Effect on Diesel Engine Wear

1971-02-01
710813
A series of comparative evaluation tests to determine the effect of various full-flow and combination full-flow and bypass filter systems on diesel engine piston ring and crankshaft bearings was made using radioactive tracer wear measurement and component weight loss techniques. The results of these tests indicate that bypass lube oil filtration combined with good full-flow lube oil filtration result in lowest engine wear rate and lowest total cost for the engine user.
Technical Paper

A Transient Spray Mixing Model for Diesel Combustion

1976-02-01
760128
A transient spray mixing model forming the basis of heterogeneous combustion in direct injection diesel engines is described. Experimental results of transient fuel sprays in a high pressure, high temperature chamber form the basis of spray growth equations. Use of similarity of concentration profile across the spray in conjunction with spray geometry and mass conservation yields a complete description of spatial and temporal fuel-air distribution. Fuel preparation and air entrainment rates are calculated from the history of fuel-air distribution. Progressive evolution of combustion zones is determined by the fuel-air mixing process. Energy conservation and chemical kinetics calculations in each zone yield cylinder pressure and local nitric oxide concentration. The role of fuel-air mixing in diesel combustion is discussed. The model results are compared with experimental data.
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