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Technical Paper

Reactor System with Diesel Injection Capability for DOC Evaluations

Plug flow reactors, simulating engine exhaust gas, are widely used in emissions control research to gain insight into the reaction mechanisms and engineering aspects that controls activity, selectivity, and durability of catalyst components. The choice of relevant hydrocarbon (HC) species is one of the most challenging factor in such laboratory studies, given the variety of compositions that can be encountered in different application scenarios. Furthermore, this challenge is amplified by the experimental difficulties related to introducing heavier and multi-component HCs and analyzing the reaction products.
Journal Article

Impact of Carbonaceous Compounds Present in Real-World Diesel Exhaust on NOx Conversion over Vanadia-SCR Catalyst

Exposure of hydrocarbons (HCs) and particulate matter (PM) under certain real-world operating conditions leads to carbonaceous deposit formation on V-SCR catalysts and causes reversible degradation of its NOx conversion. In addition, uncontrolled oxidation of such carbonaceous deposits can also cause the exotherm that can irreversibly degrade V-SCR catalyst performance. Therefore carbonaceous deposit mitigation strategies, based on their characterization, are needed to minimize their impact on performance. The nature and the amount of the deposits, formed upon exposure to real-world conditions, were primarily carried out by the controlled oxidation of the deposits to classify these carbonaceous deposits into three major classes of species: i) HCs, ii) coke, and iii) soot. The reversible NOx conversion degradation can be largely correlated to coke, a major constituent of the deposit, and to soot which causes face-plugging that leads to decreased catalyst accessibility.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a Soot Generator Integrated Bench Reactor

Experimental evaluation of soot trapping and oxidation behaviors of various diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been traditionally hampered by several experimental difficulties, such as the deposition of soot particles with well-characterized and consistent properties, and the tracking of the soot oxidation rate in real time. In the present study, an integrated bench flow-reactor system with a soot generator has been developed and its capabilities were demonstrated with regards to: Consistently and controllably loading soot on DPF samples; Monitoring the exhaust gas composition by FTIR, including quantification of the soot oxidation rate using CO and CO2; Measuring soot oxidation characteristics of various DPF samples. Soot particles were produced from a laminar propane co-flow diffusion flame.
Technical Paper

Impact of Sulfur-Oxides on the Ammonia Slip Catalyst Performance

The ammonia slip catalyst (ASC), typically composed of Pt oxidation catalyst overlaid with SCR catalyst, is employed for the mitigation of NH3 slip originating from SCR catalysts. Oxidation and SCR functionalities in an ASC can degrade through two key mechanisms i) irreversible degradation due to thermal aging and ii) reversible degradation caused by sulfur-oxides. The impact of thermal aging is well understood and it mainly degrades the SCR function of the ASC and increases the NH3 conversion to undesired products [1]. This paper describes the impact of sulfur-oxides on critical functions of ASC and on NH3 oxidation activity and selectivity towards N2, NOx and N2O. Furthermore impact of desulfation under selected conditions and its extent of ASC performance recovery is explained.
Technical Paper

New Insights into the Unique Operation of Small Pore Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst: Overlapping NH3 Desorption and Oxidation Characteristics for Minimizing Undesired Products

An operational challenge associated with SCR catalysts is the NH3 slip control, particularly for commercial small pore Cu-zeolite formulations as a consequence of their significant ammonia storage capacity. The desorption of NH3 during increasing temperature transients is one example of this challenge. Ammonia slipping from SCR catalyst typically passes through a platinum based ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOx), leading to the formation of the undesired byproducts NOx and N2O. We have discovered a distinctive characteristic, an overlapping NH3 desorption and oxidation, in a state-of-the-art Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst that can minimize NH3 slip during temperature transients encountered in real-world operation of a vehicle.
Journal Article

Effect of Transition Metal Ion Properties on the Catalytic Functions and Sulfation Behavior of Zeolite-Based SCR Catalysts

Copper- and Iron- based metal-zeolite SCR catalysts are widely used in US and European diesel aftertreatment systems to achieve drastic reduction in NOx emission. These catalysts are highly selective to N2 under wide range of operating conditions. Nevertheless, the type of transition metal has a significant impact on the key performance and durability parameters such as NOx conversion, selectivity towards N2O, hydrothermal stability, and sensitivity to fuel sulfur content. In this study, we explained the differences in the performance characteristics of these catalysts based on their relative acidic-basic nature of transition metal present in these catalysts using practically relevant gas species present in diesel exhaust such as NO2, SOx, and NH3. These experiments show that Fe-zeolite has relatively acidic nature as compared to Cu-zeolite that causes NH3 inhibition and hence explains low NOx conversion on Fe-zeolite at low temperature under standard SCR conditions.