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HD OBD Challenges 2010 Experience to Help Launch 2013

2012-01-30
The development and release process for Cummins first US HD OBD certified product encountered numerous hurdles. Beyond the purely "technical" difficulties, there were also challenges related to our product development processes. This presentation provides recommendations for HD OBD product development processes & improvements. Topics will include: Training needs for program management, Performance tuning strategies vs. OBD needs, Planning for post-certification product changes, etc. Presenter Greg Moore, Cummins Inc.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Self-Contained Engine Stand for NVH Troubleshooting and Testing of Diesel Engines

2009-05-19
2009-01-2083
Diesel engine NVH is an important characteristic of light and medium duty vehicles in today's market. Typical NVH related issues like idle gear clatter, gear whine and cab shake at low speed and load conditions are perceived as unpleasant and are unacceptable to the end customer. The root cause of many of these NVH concerns is frequently associated with powertrain structures and the excitation of different mechanical components within the engine. This paper focuses on development of robust and self-contained engine test stand which can help both for troubleshooting NVH concerns and for setting relevant targets at the subsystem levels to mitigate NVH risks. The motivation behind developing this unique test stand is given with examples and the advantages are demonstrated for relevant engine NVH testing applications.
Journal Article

Why Cu- and Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Behave Differently At Low Temperatures

2010-04-12
2010-01-1182
Cu- and Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts emerged in recent years as the primary candidates for meeting the increasingly stringent lean exhaust emission regulations, due to their outstanding activity and durability characteristics. It is commonly known that Cu-zeolite catalysts possess superior activity to Fe-zeolites, in particular at low temperatures and sub-optimal NO₂/NOx ratios. In this work, we elucidate some underlying mechanistic differences between these two classes of catalysts, first based on their NO oxidation abilities, and then based on the relative properties of the two types of exchanged metal sites. Finally, by using the ammonia coverage-dependent NOx performance, we illustrate that state-of-the-art Fe-zeolites can perform better under certain transient conditions than in steady-state.
Journal Article

Powertrain Cycle for Emission Certification

2012-09-24
2012-01-2059
In August of 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued new Green House Gas (GHG) emissions regulations for heavy duty vehicles. These regulations included new procedures for the evaluation of hybrid powertrains and vehicles. One of the hybrid options allows for the evaluation of an engine plus a hybrid transmission (a powertrain). For this type of testing, EPA has proposed simulating a vehicle following the hybrid vehicle test procedures, including the use of the vehicle cycles and the A to B comparison testing - as required for the full vehicle evaluation option. This paper proposes an alternative approach by defining a powertrain cycle. The powertrain cycle is based on the heavy duty engine emissions cycle - the transient FTP cycle. Simulation and test results are presented showing similar performance over the engine and vehicle cycles. This approach offers several advantages as compared to the procedure described in EPA's GHG rule.
Technical Paper

Drive by Noise System and Corresponding Facility Upgrades for Test Efficiency, Data Quality and Customer Satisfaction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1611
An existing pass by noise data acquisition system was upgraded to provide the sophisticated data analysis techniques and test site efficiency required to comply with the current and future drive by noise regulations. Use of six sigma tool such as voice of the customer helped in defining the customer requirements which were then translated into the desired engineering characteristics using QFD. Pugh concept matrix narrowed down the best option suitable for the test site modifications taking into account the critical constraints such as test complexity, system cost & transparency to the existing drive by noise setup. Features of the new system include data telemetry, frequency analysis, portability and efficient data management through the use of advanced data acquisition system. Wireless mode of the data transmission helped significantly avoid most of the test site modifications, which in turn helped to reduce the overall system implementation cost.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ion Current Signals in Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0567
Ion current sensors have been considered for the feedback electronic control of gasoline and diesel engines and for onboard vehicles powered by both engines, while operating on their conventional cycles or on the HCCI mode. The characteristics of the ion current signal depend on the progression of the combustion process and the properties of the combustion products in each engine. There are large differences in the properties of the combustible mixture, ignition process and combustion in both engines, when they operate on their conventional cycles. In SI engines, the charge is homogeneous with an equivalence ratio close to unity, ignition is initiated by an electric spark and combustion is through a flame propagating from the spark plug into the rest of the charge.
Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0247
Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0988
Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Future Challenges for Engine Manufacturers in View of Future Emissions Legislation

2017-05-10
2017-01-1923
Countries around the world are expected to continue to adopt more stringent emissions standards for heavy-duty markets for both oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and greenhouse gases (GHG). While there is uncertainty about the timing and extent of these regulations, it is clear that significant reductions will be required to address urban air pollution and climate change concerns. The rate and pace of technology evolution and how it will affect the energy pathways for commercial transportation and industrial use are dependent on multiple variables such as national energy and environmental policies and public-private partnerships. Although it adds complexity, the engine system has great potential to evolve as it continues to be highly integrated into the super system for which it is producing power. This paper examines the potential opportunities and challenges for engine manufacturers to continue to be the supplier of power to vehicles and equipment of the future.
Technical Paper

Reactor System with Diesel Injection Capability for DOC Evaluations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0647
Plug flow reactors, simulating engine exhaust gas, are widely used in emissions control research to gain insight into the reaction mechanisms and engineering aspects that controls activity, selectivity, and durability of catalyst components. The choice of relevant hydrocarbon (HC) species is one of the most challenging factor in such laboratory studies, given the variety of compositions that can be encountered in different application scenarios. Furthermore, this challenge is amplified by the experimental difficulties related to introducing heavier and multi-component HCs and analyzing the reaction products.
Technical Paper

Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application Using CFD and FEA Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0900
This paper describes the methodology used to select an application-based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, and noise. The selected fan is then evaluated for structural strength. To evaluate different fans, complete rail coach under-hood simulations were carried out using steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. These simulations considered an actual, highly non-uniform flow field. For each fan option, fan power, air flow rate, and surface acoustic power was evaluated. Pressure profiles on the fan blades were studied to assess the effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power was calculated using broadband noise source (BNS) model in ANSYS Fluent®. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades imported from 3D CFD were used in finite element analysis (FEA) in ANSYS. Analyses were carried out for blade linear and non-linear properties.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Field-Aged Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) on Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0998
Three-way catalysts have been used in a variety of stoichiometric natural gas engines for emission control. During real-world operation, these catalysts have experienced a large number of temporary and permanent deactivations including thermal aging and chemical contamination. Thermal aging is typically induced either by high engine-out exhaust temperatures or the reaction exotherm generated on the catalysts. Chemical contamination originates from various inorganic species such as Phosphorous (P) and Sulfur (S) that contain in engine fluids, which can poison and/or mask the catalyst active components. Such deactivations are quite difficult to simulate under laboratory conditions, due to the fact that multiple deactivation modes may occur at the same time in the real-world operations. In this work, a set of field-aged TWCs has been analyzed through detailed laboratory research in order to identify and quantify the real-world aging mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0973
Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates serious long-term durability issues for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they often sinter to the substrate.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid, Auto-Ignition/Flame-Propagation Model and Validation Against Engine Experiments and Flame Liftoff

2007-04-16
2007-01-0171
In previous publications, Singh et al. [1, 2] have shown that direct integration of CFD with a detailed chemistry auto-ignition model (KIVA-CHEMKIN) performs reasonably well for predicting combustion, emissions, and flame structure for stratified diesel engine operation. In this publication, it is shown that the same model fails to predict combustion for partially premixed dual-fuel engines. In general, models that account for chemistry alone, greatly under-predict cylinder pressure. This is shown to be due to the inability of such models to simulate a propagating flame, which is the major source of heat release in partially premixed dual-fuel engines, under certain operating conditions. To extend the range of the existing model, a level-set-based, hybrid, auto-ignition/flame-propagation (KIVA-CHEMKIN-G) model is proposed, validated and applied for both stratified diesel engine and partially premixed dual-fuel engine operation.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 13L Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analysis-Led Design

2008-06-23
2008-01-1515
The paper covers the design and development of a new 13L heavy-duty diesel engine intended primarily for heavy truck applications in China. It provides information on the specific characteristics of the engine that make it particularly suitable for operation in China, and describes in detail some of the design techniques that were used. To meet these exacting requirements, extensive use was made of Analysis-Led Design, which allows components, sub-systems and the entire engine, aftertreatment and vehicle system to be modeled before designs are taken to prototype hardware. This enables a level of system and sub-system optimization not previously available. The paper describes the emissions strategy for China, and the physical design strategy for the new engine, and provides some engine performance robustness details. The engine architecture is discussed and the paper details the analysis of the major components - cylinder block, head, head seal, power cylinder and bearings.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Onboard Coolant Filtration for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2005-05-10
2005-01-2014
Coolant filters have been used for nearly 50 years by heavy duty engine manufacturers but little has been published in the technical literature documenting their performance. In heavy duty cooling systems an extender is periodically added to the system to prevent the coolant from becoming corrosive and replenish additives that stop the build-up of deposits which reduce heat transfer. Not only is the coolant filter the most convenient and reliable method to deliver the extender to the cooling system, it also removes debris from the coolant which can cause deposits and wear, aggravate corrosion, and even plug heat exchangers. Additionally, the used coolant filter serves as a diagnostic trouble shooting tool. This paper concentrates on the value or importance of filtering debris from the coolant of heavy duty diesel engine cooling systems. Published literature is reviewed and recent data from lab testing is reported.
Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2001

2001-05-14
2001-01-2065
Cummins has studied requirements of the Light Truck Automotive market in the United States and believes that the proposed V-family of engines meets those needs. Design and development of the V-family engine system continues and has expanded. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of testing show that the engine can meet requirements for fuel economy and emissions in the Tier 2 interim period from 2004 to 2008. Advanced results show that the full Tier 2 results for 2008 and beyond can be achieved on a laboratory basis.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Oil Pressure Regulator Buzz Noise on Diesel Engines

2013-05-13
2013-01-1903
Due to increasing expectations for gasoline like sound quality, today's diesel engines for light and medium duty automotive markets needs to be carefully designed from NVH perspective. Typical engine operating conditions such as low idle, light tip in, tip out demand more attention as they are more prone to generating sound quality concerns. Any abrupt change in the noise signature may be perceived as a sign of malfunction and could have a potential to generate warranty claims. In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out to determine the root cause of the transient oil pressure regulator buzz noise which occurred during no load transients at low engine speeds. The root cause of the objectionable noise was found to be associated with the impacts of the regulator plunger on the valve seat at certain engine speeds. Noise and vibration diagnostic tests confirmed that the plunger impacts at the seat caused the objectionable buzz noise.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2737
Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
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