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Video

HD OBD Challenges 2010 Experience to Help Launch 2013

2012-01-30
The development and release process for Cummins first US HD OBD certified product encountered numerous hurdles. Beyond the purely "technical" difficulties, there were also challenges related to our product development processes. This presentation provides recommendations for HD OBD product development processes & improvements. Topics will include: Training needs for program management, Performance tuning strategies vs. OBD needs, Planning for post-certification product changes, etc. Presenter Greg Moore, Cummins Inc.
Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Experimental Techniques in Solving the Plastic Intake Manifold NVH

2001-04-30
2001-01-1544
The intent of this paper is to summarize the work of the V8 power plant intake manifold radiated noise study. In a particular V8 engine application, customer satisfaction feedback provided observations of existing unpleasant noise at the driver's ear. A comprehensive analysis of customer data indicated that a range from 500 to 800 Hz suggests a potential improvement in noise reduction at the driver's ear. In this study the noise source was determined using various accelerometers located throughout the valley of the engine and intake manifold. The overall surface velocity of the engine valley was ranked with respect to the overall surface velocity of the intake manifold. An intensity mapping technique was also used to determine the major component noise contribution. In order to validate the experimental findings, a series of analysis was also conducted. The analysis model included not only the plastic intake manifold, but also the whole powertrain.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Computational Process for Pass-By Noise Simulation

2001-04-30
2001-01-1561
The Indirect Boundary Element Analysis is employed for developing a computational pass-by noise simulation capability. An inverse analysis algorithm is developed in order to generate the definition of the main noise sources in the numerical model. The individual source models are combined for developing a system model for pass-by noise simulation. The developed numerical techniques are validated through comparison between numerical results and test data for component level and system level analyses. Specifically, the source definition capability is validated by comparing the actual and the computationally reconstructed acoustic field for an engine intake manifold. The overall pass-by noise simulation capability is validated by computing the maximum overall sound pressure level for a vehicle under two separate driving conditions.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Calculating Fluctuation Strength in Electric Motors

2001-04-30
2001-01-1588
In assessing the sound quality of electric motors (e.g., seat, mirror, and adjustable pedal motors), the sensation of Fluctuation Strength - a measure of intensity or frequency variation - has become important. For electric motors, it is typically caused by variation in the load, creating frequency modulation in the sound. An existing method for calculating Fluctuation Strength proved useful initially, but more extensive testing identified unacceptable performance. There were unacceptable levels of both false positives and false negatives. A new method is presented, which shows improved correlation with perceived fluctuation in sounds. Comparisons are made to the previous method and improvement is shown through examples of objective-subjective correlation for both seat motor sounds and adjustable pedal motor sounds. The new method is also shown to match subjective data from which the original measure of Fluctuation Strength was derived.
Technical Paper

Engine Excitation Decomposition Methods and V Engine Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1595
Engine excitation forces have been studied in the past using one of two methods; a lumped sum or a totally distributed approach. The lumped sum approach gives the well-understood engine inherent unbalance and the totally distributed approach is used in engine CAE models to determine the overall engine response. The approach that will be described in this paper identifies an intermediate level of sophistication. The methodology implemented considers single cylinder forces on the engine block, piston side thrust and main bearing forces, and decomposes them into their order content. The forces are then phased and geometrically distributed appropriately for each cylinder and then each order is analyzed relative to know distributions that are NVH concerns, V-block breathing, block side wall breathing, and block lateral and vertical bending.
Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2001

2001-05-14
2001-01-2065
Cummins has studied requirements of the Light Truck Automotive market in the United States and believes that the proposed V-family of engines meets those needs. Design and development of the V-family engine system continues and has expanded. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of testing show that the engine can meet requirements for fuel economy and emissions in the Tier 2 interim period from 2004 to 2008. Advanced results show that the full Tier 2 results for 2008 and beyond can be achieved on a laboratory basis.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefit of Cylinder Deactivation - Sensitivity to Vehicle Application and Operating Constraints

2001-09-24
2001-01-3591
A Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) improves fuel economy by deactivating half the cylinders at light load. The actual fuel economy benefit attained in the vehicle depends on how often cylinders can be deactivated, which is a function of test cycle, engine size, and vehicle weight. In practice, cylinder deactivation will also be constrained by NVH (noise, vibration, and harshness). This paper presents fuel economy projections for VDE in several different engine and vehicle applications. Sensitivity to NVH considerations is quantified by calculating fuel economy with and without cylinder deactivation in various operating modes: idle, low engine speed, 1st and 2nd gear, and warm-up after cold start. The effects of lug limits and calibration hysteresis are also presented.
Technical Paper

Dilution Effects on the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Alcohol Fuels

2001-09-24
2001-01-3606
This paper presents results from an experimental programme researching the in-cylinder conditions necessary to obtain homogenous CAI (or HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine. The fuels under investigation include three blends of Unleaded Gasoline, a 95 RON Primary Reference Fuel, Methanol, and Ethanol. This work concentrates on establishing the CAI operating range with regard to Air/Fuel ratio and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation and their effect on the ignition timing, combustion rate and variability, Indicated thermal efficiency, and engine-out emissions such as NOx. Detailed maps are presented, defining how each of the measured variables changes over the entire CAI region. Results indicate that the alcohols have significantly higher tolerance to dilution than the hydrocarbon fuels tested. Also, variations in Gasoline blend have little effect on any of the combustion parameters measured.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3608
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 1. The Effect of Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

2001-09-24
2001-01-3627
The objective of this study was to quantify engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur, low-aromatic hydrocracked (∼1 ppm) fuel, the same low sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and an EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate. Thirty three potentially toxic compounds were measured for each fuel and mode.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 3. The Effect of Pilot Injection, Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

2001-09-24
2001-01-3630
The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of pilot fuel injection on engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low aromatic, hydrocracked fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a California reformulated fuel, and a EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The pilot fuel injection was either turned off or turned on with engine control by either Location of Peak Pressure (LPP) of combustion or the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) calibration strategy. These three control strategies were compared over 2 speed-load modes run in triplicate. Thirty-three potentially toxic compounds were measured.
Technical Paper

Ford P2000 Hydrogen Engine Dynamometer Development

2002-03-04
2002-01-0242
As part of the P2000 hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicle program, an engine dynamometer research project was conducted in order to systematically investigate the unique hydrogen related combustion characteristics cited in the literature. These characteristics include pre-ignition, NOx emissions formation and control, volumetric efficiency of gaseous fuel injection and related power density, thermal efficiency, and combustion control. To undertake this study, several dedicated, hydrogen-fueled spark ignition engines (compression ratios: 10, 12.5, 14.5 and 15.3:1) were designed and built. Engine dynamometer development testing was conducted at the Ford Research Laboratory and the University of California at Riverside. This engine dynamometer work also provided the mapping data and control strategy needed to develop the engine in the P2000 vehicle.
Technical Paper

Examination of the Corrosion Behavior of Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys in an Aqueous Environment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1023
An electrochemical testing protocol for assessing the intrinsic corrosion-resistance of creep-resistant magnesium alloys in aqueous environments, and effects of passivating surface films anticipated to develop in the presence of engine coolants is under development. This work reports progress in assessing the relative corrosion resistance of the base metals (AMC-SC1, MRI-202S, MRI-230D, AM50 and 99.98% Mg) in a common test environment, based on a near-neutral pH buffered saline solution, found to yield particularly stable values for the open-circuit or corrosion potential. This approach was found to provide a platform for the eventual assessment of the durability of certain passivating layers expected to develop during exposure of the magnesium alloys to aqueous coolants.
Technical Paper

Rapid In Situ Measurement of Fuel Dilution of Oil in a Diesel Engine using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4108
A technique for rapid in situ measurement of the fuel dilution of oil in a diesel engine is presented. Fuel dilution can occur when advanced in-cylinder fuel injection techniques are employed for the purpose of producing rich exhaust for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is used to monitor the oil in a Mercedes 1.7-liter engine operated on a dynamometer platform. A fluorescent dye suitable for use in diesel fuel and oil systems is added to the engine fuel. The LIF spectra are monitored to detect the growth of the dye signal relative to the background oil fluorescence; fuel mass concentration is quantified based on a known sample set. The technique was implemented with fiber optic probes which can be inserted at various points in the engine oil system. A low cost 532-nm laser diode was used for excitation.
Technical Paper

Ford 6.8L Hydrogen IC Engine for the E-450 Shuttle Van

2007-10-29
2007-01-4096
Ford Motor Company is researching and developing multiple propulsion strategies which include advanced gasoline engines, clean diesel, flexible fuel (ethanol blends up to E-85), hybrids and hydrogen propulsion, both in internal combustion (IC) engines and fuel cells. Hydrogen utilized as a transportation fuel is viewed as a long term solution as it is sustainable and clean when derived from renewable resources. The development and use of hydrogen IC engine (H2ICE) technology can readily be utilized to drive the transition strategy from the petroleum economy to the hydrogen economy. Because the “more conventional” H2ICE systems can be brought to market more quickly and in higher volume, business initiatives for hydrogen fueling infrastructure and other hydrogen complimentary required technologies can be realized sooner. To that end Ford has fully re-engineered a 6.8L Triton V-10 engine to run on hydrogen and power an E-450 shuttle van.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Glycerin (Glycerol) as a Heavy Duty Engine Antifreeze/Coolant Base

2007-10-29
2007-01-4000
In the early years of antifreeze/coolants (1920s & 30s) glycerin saw some usage, but because of higher cost and weaker freeze point depression, it was not competitive with ethylene glycol. Glycerin is a by-product of the manufacture of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) made by reacting natural vegetable or animal fats with methanol. Biodiesel fuel is becoming increasingly important and is expected to gain a large market share in the next several years. Regular diesel fuels blended with 2%, 5%, and 20% biodiesel are now commercially available. The large amount of glycerin generated from high volume usage of biodiesel fuel has resulted in this chemical becoming cost competitive with the glycols currently used in engine coolants. For this reason, and lower toxicity comparable to that of propylene glycol, glycerin deserves to be reconsidered as a base for antifreeze/coolant.
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