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Video

HD OBD Challenges 2010 Experience to Help Launch 2013

2012-01-30
The development and release process for Cummins first US HD OBD certified product encountered numerous hurdles. Beyond the purely "technical" difficulties, there were also challenges related to our product development processes. This presentation provides recommendations for HD OBD product development processes & improvements. Topics will include: Training needs for program management, Performance tuning strategies vs. OBD needs, Planning for post-certification product changes, etc. Presenter Greg Moore, Cummins Inc.
Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Video

Technical Keynote: Leading in Crazy Times

2012-02-09
Leading during normal times is plenty challenging. Leading in crazy times requires extra understanding and skill. This presentation explores how you and your team can be your best, regardless of what craziness may be going on around your organization, your team members, and you. Presenter Theresa Rich, General Motors Company
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Video

Developing OBD Products for Worldwide Markets

2012-02-01
The presenter will discuss challenges introduced by OBD in developing a product for worldwide markets and the impact of varying worldwide requirements for OBD performance and certification. Presenter Benjamin Zwissler, Cummins Inc.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

External Corrosion Resistance of CuproBraze® Radiators

2001-05-14
2001-01-1718
New technology for the manufacturing of copper/brass heat exchangers has been developed and the first automotive radiators are already in operation in vehicles. This new technology is called CuproBraze®. One of the essential questions raised is the external corrosion resistance with reference to the present soldered copper/brass radiators and to the brazed aluminium radiators. Based on the results from electrochemical measurements and from four different types of accelerated corrosion tests, the external corrosion resistance of the CuproBraze® radiators is clearly better than that of the soldered copper/brass radiators and competitive with the brazed aluminum radiators, especially as regards marine atmosphere. Due to the relatively high strength of the CuproBraze® heat exchangers, down gauging of fins and tubes in some applications is attractive. High performance coatings can ensure long lifetime from corrosion point of view, even for thin gauge heat exchangers.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Snow surface model for tire performance simulation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0252
New tire model is under development in European Commission research project called VERT (Vehicle Road Tire Interaction, BRPR-CT97-0461). The objective of the project is to create a physical model for tire/surface contact simulation. One of the subtasks has been to develop a method for snow surface characterization. The aim is simulate winter tire on snow surface with FEM software. This kind of simulation has been earlier done with snow model parameters from laboratory experiments. A snow shear box device has been developed in Helsinki University of Technology to measure mechanical properties of snow in field conditions. Both shear and compression properties can be measured with the device. With the device, a large number of snow measurements have been done at the same time with VERT winter tire testing in Nokian Tyres'' test track in Ivalo Finland. Measurement data have been postprocessed afterwards and parameters for material models have been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2001

2001-05-14
2001-01-2065
Cummins has studied requirements of the Light Truck Automotive market in the United States and believes that the proposed V-family of engines meets those needs. Design and development of the V-family engine system continues and has expanded. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of testing show that the engine can meet requirements for fuel economy and emissions in the Tier 2 interim period from 2004 to 2008. Advanced results show that the full Tier 2 results for 2008 and beyond can be achieved on a laboratory basis.
Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-1069
The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1044
A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
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