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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Instabilities and Power Flow in Brake Systems with Coupled Rotor Modes

2001-04-30
2001-01-1602
Recent investigations by others have indicated that the dynamic response of automotive brake rotors in the squeal frequency range involves the classic flexural modes as well as in-plane motion. While the latter set creates primarily in-plane displacements, there is coupling to transverse displacements that might produce vibrational instabilities. This question is investigated here by analyzing a modal model that includes two modes of the rotor and two modes of the pad and caliper assembly. Coupling between in-plane and transverse displacements is explicitly controlled. Results from this model indicate that the coupling does create vibrational instabilities. The instabilities, whose frequencies are in the squeal range, are characterized by power flow through the transverse motion of the rotor.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Rail Rivet and Steel Rail Weld DOE and CAE Studies for NVH

2001-04-30
2001-01-1608
Vehicle body with aluminum riveted construction instead of steel welded one will be a big challenge to NVH. In this paper, aluminum and steel rails with the dimensions similar to the rear rail portion of a typical mid-size sedan were fabricated. Rivets were used to assemble the aluminum rails while welds were used to assemble the steel rails. Adhesive, rivet/weld spacing, and rivet/weld location were the three major factors to be studied and their impact on NVH were investigated. The DOE matrix was developed using these three major factors. Modal tests were performed on those rails according to the DOE matrix. The FEA models corresponding to the hardware were built. CAE modal analysis were performed and compared with test data. The current in-house CAE modeling techniques for spot weld and adhesive were evaluated and validated with test data.
Technical Paper

Engine Excitation Decomposition Methods and V Engine Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1595
Engine excitation forces have been studied in the past using one of two methods; a lumped sum or a totally distributed approach. The lumped sum approach gives the well-understood engine inherent unbalance and the totally distributed approach is used in engine CAE models to determine the overall engine response. The approach that will be described in this paper identifies an intermediate level of sophistication. The methodology implemented considers single cylinder forces on the engine block, piston side thrust and main bearing forces, and decomposes them into their order content. The forces are then phased and geometrically distributed appropriately for each cylinder and then each order is analyzed relative to know distributions that are NVH concerns, V-block breathing, block side wall breathing, and block lateral and vertical bending.
Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2001

2001-05-14
2001-01-2065
Cummins has studied requirements of the Light Truck Automotive market in the United States and believes that the proposed V-family of engines meets those needs. Design and development of the V-family engine system continues and has expanded. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of testing show that the engine can meet requirements for fuel economy and emissions in the Tier 2 interim period from 2004 to 2008. Advanced results show that the full Tier 2 results for 2008 and beyond can be achieved on a laboratory basis.
Technical Paper

Finite element simulation of drive shaft in truck/SUV frontal crash

2001-06-04
2001-06-0106
Drive shaft modelling effects frontal crash finite element simulation. A 35 mph rigid barrier impact of a body on frame SUV with an one piece drive shaft and a unibody SUV with a two piece drive shaft have been studied and simulated using finite element analyses. In the model, the drive shaft can take significant load in frontal impact crash. Assumptions regarding the drive shaft model can change the predicted engine motion in the simulation. This change influences the rocker @ B-pillar deceleration. Two modelling methods have been investigated in this study considering both joint mechanisms and material failure in dynamic impact. Model parameters for joint behavior and failure should be determined from vehicle design information and component testing. A body on frame SUV FEA model has been used to validate the drive shaft modeling technique by comparing the simulation results with crash test data.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefit of Cylinder Deactivation - Sensitivity to Vehicle Application and Operating Constraints

2001-09-24
2001-01-3591
A Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) improves fuel economy by deactivating half the cylinders at light load. The actual fuel economy benefit attained in the vehicle depends on how often cylinders can be deactivated, which is a function of test cycle, engine size, and vehicle weight. In practice, cylinder deactivation will also be constrained by NVH (noise, vibration, and harshness). This paper presents fuel economy projections for VDE in several different engine and vehicle applications. Sensitivity to NVH considerations is quantified by calculating fuel economy with and without cylinder deactivation in various operating modes: idle, low engine speed, 1st and 2nd gear, and warm-up after cold start. The effects of lug limits and calibration hysteresis are also presented.
Technical Paper

An Ultra-Light Thin Sliding Door Design - A Multi-Product Multi-Material Solution

2002-03-04
2002-01-0391
Sliding door designs are applied to rear side doors on vans and other large vehicles with a trend towards dual sliding doors with power operation. It is beneficial for the vehicle user to reduce the weight of and space occupied by these doors. Alcoa, in conjunction with Ford, has developed a multi-product, multi-material-based solution, which significantly reduces the cost of an aluminum sliding door and provides both consumer delight and stamping-assembly plant benefits. The design was successfully demonstrated through a concept readiness/technology demonstration program.
Technical Paper

Permanent Mold Casting and Creep Behavior of Mg - 4 Al - 4 X: (Ca, Ce, La, Sr) Alloys

2007-04-16
2007-01-1027
Creep-resistant magnesium alloys for automotive powertrain applications offer significant potential for vehicle weight reduction. In this study permanent mold casting, microstructure and creep behavior have been investigated for a series of ternary magnesium alloys (Mg-4Al-4X (X: Ca, Ce, La, Sr) wt%) and AXJ530 (Mg-5Al-3Ca-0.15Sr, wt%). A permanent mold was instrumented with twelve thermocouples and mold temperature was monitored during the casting process. Average mold temperature increased from 200°C to 400°C during a typical alloy casting series (fifteen to twenty castings). The cast microstructure for all alloys consists of primary α-Mg globular phase surrounded by eutectic structure which is composed of intermetallic(s) and α-Mg magnesium phases. The primary cell size of the AXJ530 increased from 18 to 24 μm with increasing mold temperature and a similar trend is expected for all alloys.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Glycerin (Glycerol) as a Heavy Duty Engine Antifreeze/Coolant Base

2007-10-29
2007-01-4000
In the early years of antifreeze/coolants (1920s & 30s) glycerin saw some usage, but because of higher cost and weaker freeze point depression, it was not competitive with ethylene glycol. Glycerin is a by-product of the manufacture of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) made by reacting natural vegetable or animal fats with methanol. Biodiesel fuel is becoming increasingly important and is expected to gain a large market share in the next several years. Regular diesel fuels blended with 2%, 5%, and 20% biodiesel are now commercially available. The large amount of glycerin generated from high volume usage of biodiesel fuel has resulted in this chemical becoming cost competitive with the glycols currently used in engine coolants. For this reason, and lower toxicity comparable to that of propylene glycol, glycerin deserves to be reconsidered as a base for antifreeze/coolant.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain with an Engine-Disconnecting Clutch

2002-03-04
2002-01-0930
Several types of hybrid-electric vehicles have been developed at Ford Research Laboratory. Among the parallel hybrid systems with a single electric motor, two types were studied. In the first type, the electric motor was attached directly to the crankshaft (mild hybrid) [1], to enable the engine start-stop and regeneration functions. In the second type (full hybrid) the electric motor was connected to the engine through the use of a clutch to allow electric launch of the vehicle and pure electric driving at low speeds. The full hybrid powertrain described in this paper uses a more powerful electric motor for enhanced regenerative braking and engine power assist. An engine-disconnecting clutch saves energy during both the electric propulsion and during vehicle braking. When the clutch is disengaged the engine is shut-off, which eliminates the energy otherwise spent on motoring the engine during electric propulsion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid, Auto-Ignition/Flame-Propagation Model and Validation Against Engine Experiments and Flame Liftoff

2007-04-16
2007-01-0171
In previous publications, Singh et al. [1, 2] have shown that direct integration of CFD with a detailed chemistry auto-ignition model (KIVA-CHEMKIN) performs reasonably well for predicting combustion, emissions, and flame structure for stratified diesel engine operation. In this publication, it is shown that the same model fails to predict combustion for partially premixed dual-fuel engines. In general, models that account for chemistry alone, greatly under-predict cylinder pressure. This is shown to be due to the inability of such models to simulate a propagating flame, which is the major source of heat release in partially premixed dual-fuel engines, under certain operating conditions. To extend the range of the existing model, a level-set-based, hybrid, auto-ignition/flame-propagation (KIVA-CHEMKIN-G) model is proposed, validated and applied for both stratified diesel engine and partially premixed dual-fuel engine operation.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0417
Since 2000, an Aluminum Cosmetic Corrosion task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has existed. The task group has pursued the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. A cooperative program uniting OEM, supplier, and consultants has been created and has been supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to this committee's formation, numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels. However, correlations between these laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. Thus, the primary objective of this task group's project was to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates well with in-service performance.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Warm Forming Assisted Hemming to Study the Effect of Process Parameters on Product Quality

2007-04-16
2007-01-0420
Current trends in the auto industry requiring tighter dimensional specifications combined with the use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum, are a challenge for the traditional manufacturing processes. The hemming process, a sheet metal bending operation used in the manufacturing of car doors and hoods, poses problems meeting tighter dimensional tolerances. Hemming is the final operation that is used to fasten the outer panel with the inner panel by folding the outer panel over the inner panel. Roll in/out is one of the main quality concerns with hemming, and keeping it under tolerance is a high priority issue for the auto manufacturers. Current hemming process technology, given the mechanical properties of current materials, has reached its saturation limit to deliver consistent dimensional quality to satisfy customers and at the same time meet government standards.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Feedgas Hydrocarbon Emissions: An Extension to Warm Engine Maps

2005-10-24
2005-01-3862
A feedgas hydrocarbon emissions model that extends the usefulness of fully-warmed steady-state engine maps to the cold transient regime was developed for use within a vehicle simulation program that focuses on the powertrain control system (Virtual Powertrain and Control System, VPACS). The formulation considers three main sources of hydrocarbon. The primary component originates from in-cylinder crevice effects which are correlated with engine coolant temperature. The second component includes the mass of fuel that enters the cylinder but remains unavailable for combustion (liquid phase) and subsequently vaporizes during the exhaust portion of the cycle. The third component includes any fuel that remains from a slow or incomplete burn as predicted by a crank angle resolved combustion model.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2005-04-11
2005-01-0542
A co-operative program initiated by the Automotive Aluminum Alliance and supported by USAMP continues to pursue the goal of establishing an in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion test for finished aluminum auto body panels that provides a good correlation with in-service performance. The program is organized as a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee. Initially a large reservoir of test materials was established to provide a well-defined and consistent specimen supply for comparing test results. A series of laboratory procedures have been conducted on triplicate samples at separate labs in order to evaluate the reproducibility of the various lab tests. Exposures at OEM test tracks have also been conducted and results of the proving ground tests have been compared to the results in the laboratory tests. Outdoor tests and on-vehicle tests are also in progress. An optical imaging technique is being utilized for evaluation of the corrosion.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 13L Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analysis-Led Design

2008-06-23
2008-01-1515
The paper covers the design and development of a new 13L heavy-duty diesel engine intended primarily for heavy truck applications in China. It provides information on the specific characteristics of the engine that make it particularly suitable for operation in China, and describes in detail some of the design techniques that were used. To meet these exacting requirements, extensive use was made of Analysis-Led Design, which allows components, sub-systems and the entire engine, aftertreatment and vehicle system to be modeled before designs are taken to prototype hardware. This enables a level of system and sub-system optimization not previously available. The paper describes the emissions strategy for China, and the physical design strategy for the new engine, and provides some engine performance robustness details. The engine architecture is discussed and the paper details the analysis of the major components - cylinder block, head, head seal, power cylinder and bearings.
Technical Paper

Optimum Gap Design And Durability Analysis of Catalytic Converter Assembly

2001-03-05
2001-01-0942
A method to predict gap distribution, can deformation and mounting force of catalytic converter during assembling and operation cycles has been developed using ABAQUS contact algorithm with user subroutine for material properties. Inherent in the methodology is the constitutive model for both vermiculite mat and wire mesh mounting materials, which is able to describe their nonlinear and thermal behaviors and shows good agreement with test results. A design optimization procedure is presented to achieve uniform gap design of can and substrate. The technology will enable engineers to generate robust converter can designs, substrate shape and stamping tools for minimum manufacturing failure rate and maximum durability performance once a mounting material is selected.
Technical Paper

A New FEA Method for the Evaluation of a Body Joint

2001-03-05
2001-01-0758
A finite element analysis method has been developed to assess the design of an automobile body joint. The concept of the coefficient of joint stiffness and the force distribution ratio are proposed accordingly. The coefficient of joint stiffness reveals whether a joint is stiff enough compared to its joining components. In addition, these parameters can be used to estimate the potential and the effectiveness for any further improvement of the joint design. The modeling and analysis of the proposed process are robust. The coefficient of joint stiffness could be further developed to serve as the joint design target.
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