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Technical Paper

Mixed Signal Power IC for Automotive Electronics

Many ICs are used in various electronic components in automotive applications, such as ECUs (electronic control units) and smart actuators. Automotive ICs required the following features: (1) high integration of analog, digital and output devices; (2) high breakdown voltage for analog devices standing the battery voltage; (3) highly accurate control for analog circuits; (4) susceptibility under harsh operating conditions, such as high ambient temperature and high humidity; and (5) high surge immunity such as ESD (electrostatic discharge) robustness. To meet these requirements, we developed analog and output devices with improved surge endurance based on SOI wafer and trench-dielectric-isolation technologies. Analog circuit applications, especially accurate power management or high-precision solenoid driving, demands stable temperature-compensated output. Load dump and battery-jumping also needs high voltage protection and high noise immunity for these devices.
Technical Paper

Environment-Friendly Fluxless Soldering Process for High Sealing Ability on Pressure Sensors

In a conventional soldering process, solvents, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), have been necessary to remove the flux-residue after soldering. A new CFC-free fluxless soldering process has been developed to obtain high sealing ability even in a small soldering area. This new process utilizes a reducing atmosphere with an appropriate load and assembly orientation to solder the parts. Under this fluxless condition, it is found that appropriate loading and good solder-wettability of the upper part increase the wettability of the lower part.
Technical Paper

The Latest Technology of Controlling Micro-Pore in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filter for DPNR System

A DPNR (Diesel Particulate-Nox Reduction) system is designed to simultaneously remove PM (Particulate Matter) and NOx from the exhaust of diesel engined vehicles. A DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) is used in the DPNR system to reduce the PM. The DPF must have high PM filtering efficiency, while at the same time having low back pressure. However, filtering efficiency and back pressure have trade off relations. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the pore distribution in the walls of the DPF to satisfy both characteristics. This paper will explain that optimized control of pore distribution enables both high PM filtering efficiency and low back pressure.
Technical Paper

The Development of the Lead Free Carbon Brush for Starters

Carbon brushes for automotive starters are used under severe conditions of high electric current density, high contact pressure and high sliding velocity. Therefore lead has traditionally been added to brushes to improve performance and durability. Lead is an environmental hazardous substance. In the EU, the law prohibits adding lead to brushes for electric motors which is installed on new automobiles in and after January 2005. In order to develop the lead free carbon brush for starters, we analyzed the effect and selected substitutive substance of lead. Adding lead to the brush reduces the electric resistance increase of the brush in high-temperature and high-humidity atmosphere and in high-temperature atmosphere. Furthermore lead reduces the wear amount of brush. We developed the lead free brush surpassing the lead addition brush in performance and durability by addition of lead alternatives silver and zinc.
Technical Paper

Response Surface Modeling of Diesel Spray Parameterized by Geometries Inside of Nozzle

A response surface model of a diesel spray, parameterized by the internal geometries of a nozzle, is established in order to design the nozzle geometries optimally for spray mixing. The explanatory variables are the number of holes, the hole diameter, the inclined angle, the hole length, the hole inlet radius, K-factor and the sac diameter. The model is defined as a full second-order polynomial model including all the first-order interactions of the variables, and a total of 40 sets of numerical simulations based on D-optimal design are carried out to calculate the partial regression coefficients. Partial regression coefficients that deteriorate the estimate accuracy are eliminated by a validation process, so that the estimate accuracy is improved to be ±3% and ±15% for the spray penetration and the spread, respectively. Then, the model is applied to an optimization of the internal geometries for the spray penetration and the spray spread through a multi-objective genetic algorism.
Technical Paper

The Advanced Diesel Common Rail System for Achieving a Good Balance Between Ecology and Economy

At present, various efforts are being made in the industrial world to preserve the earth's environment. Automobile industry has to comply with the emission control regulations including NOx and PM and the requirement of reducing CO2 emission from the viewpoint of global warming protection and energy saving. In these situations, diesel engines having a high potential to reduce CO2 emission are attracting much attention. In order to enhance the potential of diesel to reduce CO2 while solving its problems (“slow, dirty, noisy”), common rail systems are vital. DENSO developed an advanced common rail system (CRS) that integrates fuel injectors capable of delivering up to five injection events per combustion cycle at 180MPa injection pressure. This paper describes the injection performance and effects of the 180MPa common rail system and then explains the next generation common rail system.
Technical Paper

Concept of Vehicle Electric Power Flow Management System (VEF)

Increasing electric loads in a vehicle causes over-discharge of a battery and drag torque due to an alternator. This paper gives a system concept of vehicle electric power flow management to solve these issues. Its primary function includes preserving electricity in a battery, stabilizing electric bus voltage, interfacing with vehicle torque control system, and improving fuel economy. The key point to realize such a system is a unified structure. It offers ‘Plug and Play’ function for electric power management components. Newly developed Vehicle Electric Power Flow Management System (VEF ) totally controls electric power flow in a vehicle. VEF contains an Electric Power Manager and its functional sub-systems, and controls them with the key parameter ‘electric power’. The sub-system includes Generation, Storage, Conversion, and Distribution to the loads.
Technical Paper

Study on Flame Behavior Control by the Electric Field

The purpose of this study is to elucidate flame propagation behavior of homogeneous propane-air mixture under application of non-uniform electric field. A needle-shaped electrode was attached to the ceiling and a plate electrode was set at bottom of combustion chamber, so that the electric field was applied in the direction of the chamber's vertical axis. A homogeneous propane-air mixture was supplied at equivalence ratio of 1.0 and was ignited by leaser induced breakdown under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. It was found that the flame front and plate electrode were repelled each other and a thin air layer was formed between the flame and plate electrode when a relatively low positive DC non-uniform electric field was applied to the needle-shaped electrode. It might be thought that the induced current was generated in the flame front, so that the flame front and plate electrode repelled each other.
Technical Paper

Super Ignition Spark Plug with Fine Center & Ground Electrodes

Spark plugs with higher ignitability are continuously in great demand to realize high fuel efficiency and low emissions. To meet this demand, DENSO launched the Iridium Spark Plug in 1997, which realized the two characteristics that had been conventionally difficult to achieve concurrently-high ignitability and long life. The development of this product was enabled by miniaturizing the center electrode, produced using DENSO's original, highly wear-resistant iridium alloy (featuring a high melting point and excellent oxidation resistance). While spark plugs are now required to have a longer service life, they are also required to be higher in ignitability, as exhaust gas regulations have been tightened recently. However, the effort to miniaturize the center electrode is reaching a limit.