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Technical Paper

Research of the DI Diesel Spray Characteristics at High Temperature and High Pressure Ambient

In order to clarify the diesel fuel spray characteristics inside the cylinder, we developed two novel techniques, which are preparation of same level of temperature and pressure ambient as inside cylinder and quantitative measurement of vapor concentration. The first one utilizes combustion-type constant-volume chamber (inner volume 110cc), which allows 5 MPa and 873K by igniting the pre-mixture (n-pentane and air) with two spark plugs. In the second technique, TMPD vapor concentration is measured by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence method (LIEF). The concentration is compensated by investigation of the influence of ambient pressure (from 3 to 5 MPa) and temperature (from 550 to 900 K) on TMPD fluorescence intensity. By using two techniques, we investigated the influence of nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure and ambient condition on spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of Combustion Behavior Analysis Techniques in the Ultra High Engine Speed Range

In order to clarify the combustion behavior in the ultra high engine speed range, a new technique has been developed. This technique is composed of ionization current detection and flame observation, and is highly heat-resistant, vibration-resistant, and has a quick response. From analyzing the flame front propagation in the high-speed research engine, it was found that the flame propagated throughout the entire cylinder over almost the same crank angle period irrespective of engine speed introduction.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis on Piston Cavity Shape of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

This paper describes the analyses to improve both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion of a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and high-speed hydrocarbon (HC) measurement were employed to observe the mixture formation process. The analysis of the combustion flame propagation was conducted by in-cylinder visualization and ion current measurement. As a result of the analyses, the following conclusions were made: 1 An oval shaped wall cavity can direct the mixture gas to the vicinity of the spark plug better than a conventional shell-shaped wall cavity. The oval shaped wall cavity can improve fuel consumption and HC emission at stratified charge combustion. 2 A shallow cavity improves the homogenization of mixture gases and wide open throttle (WOT) performance.
Technical Paper

Ignition Simulation and Visualization for Spark Plug Electrode Design

An ignition simulation and an ignition visualization method that analyze effects of spark plug electrode design have been developed. In the ignition simulation, a programmed heat source corresponds to the discharge energy in the spark gap, and the flame-kernel generation and flame propagation are calculated on the heat balance in the gap, in consideration of thermal transmission to the electrodes. The results by this simulation indicate that high ignitability of fine ground electrode spark plugs is because the miniaturization of the ground electrode reduces the heat loss, and flame growth is thus less disturbed by the loss. The ignition visualization includes taking Schlieren images by laser light to capture flame kernels with weaker luminescence intensity compared to ignition discharge spark luminescence. This visualization enables the observation of the influence of the shape of spark plug electrodes on flame growth.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption at High Engine Speed by Visualization of the Piston Ring Behaviors

In internal combustion engine, it is well-known that oil infiltrates the combustion chamber through the clearance between the piston ring and the cylinder bore with vertical reciprocating motion of the piston, leading to an increase in oil consumption. The deformation of the cylinder bore is inevitable to some extent in the actual engine because of the tightening of cylinder head bolt and heat load._As to the function of the piston ring, it is desirable that it conforms to such bore deformation. The author et al. made a glass cylinder engine in which closed piston ring gap could be visualized, based on the idea that piston ring conformability to the sliding surface of bore could be evaluated from minute changes of the piston ring gap. This newly-devised visualized engine was an in-line 4-cylinder engine, capable of running up to 6,000 rpm, in which the closed gap of piston ring could be observed minutely during engine operation.
Technical Paper

Development of Fan Spray Simulation for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

In gasoline direct injection engines it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is anticipated as a tool for optimizing nozzle design, but conventional simulation, which is based on experimental data and/or empirical laws regarding spray boundary condition at the nozzle exit, cannot predict the effect of various nozzle geometries on spray characteristics. In Japan, a fan spray injected from a slit type nozzle has recently been adopted for gasoline direct injection engines. This paper proposes a computational model for the fan spray. The structure of two-phase flow inside the nozzle is numerically analyzed using the volume of fluid (VOF) method in a three-dimensional CFD code based on the nozzle geometry. The results of these analyses are applied to classical linear instability theory to calculate fuel droplet mean diameter after primary breakup.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Fuel Behavior During the Cold Start Period of a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

An experimental study was carried out in order to reduce engine-out HC emissions from a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine during the cold start period. The objectives of this study were to investigate the fuel behavior quantified with an analytic method and to propose some practical techniques to reduce the cylinder-wetting fuel volume and engine-out HC emissions. Compared to the MPI (Multi Port Fuel Injection) engine, required fuel volume for DISI engine was reduced during the cold start because intake port wall-wetting was not generated. On the other hand, a large volume of cylinder wetting fuel resulted in engine-out HC emissions. Injection timing, atomization and vaporization of injected fuel affected the cylinder-wetting fuel volume. Above all, Injection of the heated fuel provided good results. In summary, engine-out HC emissions from DISI engine was reduced compared to that of MPI engine during the cold-start period.
Technical Paper

Advanced Electronics for a Clean Diesel Engine Management System

With the economic development of countries around the world led by BRICs(Brazil, Russia, India, China), the total number of automobiles in the world continues to rise. From the standpoint of preserving limited petroleum resources and reducing CO2 emissions, improved fuel consumption is necessary if we are to continue enjoying the use of automobiles. In Europe, significant development of diesel engine technology as a power source for automobiles has taken place to reduce fuel consumption and to enhance the “Fun to Drive” experience, and market share of diesel engines has increased in this area. However, with increasing environmental awareness worldwide, all areas of the globe are seeing tightened regulations for not only fuel consumption, but also exhaust emissions, including those for PM(Particulate Matter) and NOx. Of these regulations, the requirement for vehicles to satisfy the US Tier 2 Bin 5 rating, regardless of whether they are gasoline or dieselpowered, is the most stringent.
Technical Paper

Cam and Crank Rotation Sensor with Reverse Rotation Detection

In order to improve the performance of Engine Management System (EMS), it becomes more important to accurately detect the position of cam and crank with rotation sensors, usually as referred cam and crank sensor. In addition, expectations for the idle stop system to follow the reinforcement of emission regulations require cam and crank sensors to implement the function of reverse rotation detection. This paper discusses our development of a new generation rotation sensor (MR3) that uses AMR (Anisotropic Magneto Resistance) for accurate rotation detection to meet all system and market demands with minimum number of components to achieve high quality but less expensive price.
Technical Paper

Strain and Motion Measurement for Piston, Piston Ring and Connecting Rod of High Speed Running Engines using New Digital Telemeter

The authors have developed a measurement technique equipped with new digital telemeter for strain, motion and temperature of engine parts under high speed running operation with high accuracy. This telemeter has an original signal processing method in which the sensor outputs are directly converted to digital signals without conventional amplifiers and A/D converters. This telemeter enables multipoint measurements at high engine speed in small gasoline engines because of its compactness and lightweight. And this enables long hours of engine test without concern over battery life because of its low power consumption and self-contained power generation. We applied new developed digital telemeter to several measurements and analysis on the piston, piston ring and connecting rod.
Technical Paper

New Concept Catalyzed DPF for Estimating Soot Loadings from Pressure Drop

To better estimate soot loadings from the pressure drop of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), a new concept cordierite-based catalyzed DPF has been developed. This new catalyzed DPF features (1) no washcoat layer, which often is the origin of uncertain pressure drop behavior, and (2) a modified substrate composition for improved thermal durability of the catalyst metal without the washcoat layer. Several characteristic were confirmed through engine tests based on this concept.
Technical Paper

Development of Rain Sensor for Automatic Wiper System

One of the key elements of vehicle safety requires a constantly uninterrupted visible view especially during unexpected weather conditions. Our present development of a light reflection type rain sensor is a key device of our automatic windshield wiper system. The design concept of the sensor is based on the quantification on both detected rainfalls and wiping modes in order to match the wiping mode in an operator's mind by optimizing the optical sensing system and establishing an algorithm for controlling wiping. In addition, auto-initialization of the system has been achieved first in the world.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Engine ECU by Modeling Technology

Along with the evolution of vehicle electronic systems from independent control in each domain system to the integration control of the whole vehicle system, ECU systems have become increasingly complicated and large-scale. This has made it extremely difficult to develop the entire system coherently and efficiently from the functional level down to implementation level. On the other hand, the development methodology focusing on single ECU system used today has been facing an additional challenge because of increasingly strict requirements for safety design based on multi-ECU systems. To address these challenges, we have been working on developing virtual development of Engine ECU by modeling technology. In order to achieve optimum electronic systems, it is necessary to build many real devices and evaluate the performance of systems. However, it is also becoming necessary to build virtual devices because of the increasingly complicated and large-scale systems.
Technical Paper

ESD Current Measurement Using the Near Mangetic Field

In order to evaluate the toughness of automotive ECU's to electrostatic discharge, a conventional method where electrostatic discharge pulse is applied to connector parts on a printed circuit board is commonly used. But quantitative re-designing principles to improve the static electricity tolerance have not been made clear that completely utilizes the test data shown below till now, because propagation mechanism of static electricity on a circuit board is not clear. This paper describes the ESD current measurement technique which detects the near magnetic field generated by ESD currents. We developed to measure the ESD currents using the new loop antenna on a circuit board. The ESD current, was generated with the static electricity applied to a model circuit pattern in conformity with IEC and ISO standard and measured using the antenna. Also it was able to visualize how static electricity energy would propagate through the circuit board.
Technical Paper

3D Spray Measurement System for High Density Fields Using Laser Holography

To develop injection nozzles and to improve the numerical simulation technology of fuel spray, a measuring technology to analyze the process of disintegration into droplets accurately is required. Performances required by a spray droplets measuring device are: “ability to measure in the combustion condition inside the engine cylinder”, “ability to measure the diameter of spray droplets in high-density fields”, “ability to measure the structure of spray droplets in 3D”, and an improved measuring accuracy of non-spherical droplets. These elements are required in order to analyze the spray droplets structure of gasoline direct injection engines. As a promising method to satisfy these requirements, the laser holography method has been already suggested. However, it has some drawbacks, such as a difficulty in measuring spray droplets in high-density fields and over a long analysis period.
Technical Paper

Technologies of DENSO Common Rail for Diesel Engine and Consumer Values

Electronics has greatly contributed to the operation of internal combustion engines. This is especially evident in the benefits that it has brought to drivers, such as enhancing the “Fun to Drive” experience and in reducing the cost of fuel. Moreover, this progress has resulted in minimizing environmental degradation, and yet continuing to support improvements in performance. In the diesel engine, which has superb fuel economy, the innovative progress has been achieved by the common rail technology. The common rail system has the features of high injection pressure control in all engine speed range, highly precise injection control and multiple injections per combustion cycle. The latest 2nd generation of the DENSO common rail system features 1800 bar injection pressure, and five times multiple injection with fully electronic control to ensure precise small injection quantities. This technology has been commercialized into passenger car products in the European market.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine using New Fuel Injection System - Direct Monitoring of Fuel Injection Pressure using Injector with Built-in Sensor, and its Applications

Recently, diesel engine manufacturers have been improving the tolerance of fuel injection quantity and timing in response to the strengthening of emissions regulations and the introduction of various kinds of diesel fuels. This paper describes the Intelligent Accuracy Refinement Technology (i-ART) system, which has been developed as a way of achieving substantially improved tolerances. The i-ART system consists of a fuel pressure sensor installed in the injectors. It calculates the injection quantity and timing at high speed using a dedicated microcomputer designed for pressure waveform analysis. As the injector can directly measure the fuel injection pressure waveform for each injection, it can compensate the injection quantity and timing tolerance at any time. Toyota Motor Corporation has introduced this system in Brazilian market vehicles. In Brazil, the PROCONVE L6 emissions regulations will be introduced in 2012, and the market also uses various kinds of diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Development of New Generation Battery Management ECU

Recent electric vehicles use Li-ion batteries to power the main electric motor. To maintain the safety of the main electric motor battery using Li-ion cells, it is necessary to monitor the voltage of each cell. DENSO has developed a battery Electronic Control Unit (ECU) that contributes greatly to the reduction of the cost and the improvement of the reliability of the system. Each manufacturer has been developing a dedicated IC for monitoring the voltages of each cell of a battery. However, since the number of cells that can be monitored is limited, more than one IC is required to measure the voltages of a large number of cells. The increase in the number of ICs and the amount of insulator leads to the rise in system cost. DENSO has developed a dedicated IC that uses a proprietary high-breakdown voltage process, and which enables monitoring up to 24 cells with a single IC chip.
Technical Paper

Development of a New MOS Rectifier for High-Efficiency Alternators

For the purpose of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, it is necessary to reduce energy loss in the alternator. We have lowered the resistance of the rectifying device and connecting components, and control the rectifying device with an IC to reduce rectification loss. For the package design, we have changed the structure of the part on which the rectifying device is mounted into a high heat dissipation type. The new structure has enabled optimizing the size of the rectifying device, resulting in the reduction of size of the package. In addition, the rectifying device is mounted using a new soldering material and a new process, which has improved the reliability of the connection. Moreover, since the alternator has introduced a new system, the controller IC has a function for preventing malfunction of the rectifying device and a function for detecting abnormalities, in order to ensure safety.
Technical Paper

Development of Automatic Braking System to Help Reduce Rear Impacts

A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.