Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Natural Gas Combustion in a Single Cylinder SI Engine and Impact of Charge Dilution by Means of EGR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0113
In this paper experimental results of a medium duty single cylinder research engine with spark ignition are presented. The engine was operated with stoichiometric natural gas combustion and additional charge dilution by means of external and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The first part of this work considers the benefits of cooled EGR on thermo-mechanical stress of the engine including exhaust gas temperature, cylinder head temperature, and knock behaviour. This is followed by the analysis of the influence of cooled EGR on the heat release rate. In this context the impact of fuel gas composition is also under investigation. The influence of increasing EGR on fuel efficiency, which is caused by a changed combustion process due to higher fractions of inert gases, is shown in this section. By application of different pistons a relationship between the piston bowl geometry and the flame propagation has been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition and Combustion Process on Thermodynamic Parameters of SI Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1633
In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport in Diesel Particle Filters

2012-09-10
2012-01-1732
Lubricant oil derived ash deposits still represent a major issue in diesel particulate filter operation in vehicles. In literature various ash deposition patterns are described. The two boundary deposition patterns are (a) wall layer and (b) filling at the back end of the inlet channels. The patterns are often associated with different regeneration methods. Continuous regeneration is supposed to result in a homogeneous ash layer, whereas periodic (active) regeneration is reported to result in back end filling. The current contribution describes the basic mechanisms associated with ash transport phenomena in particle filters. On the basis of (a) frequency of ash exposure to flow (b) ash particle structure re-entrainment and finally (c) axial ash transport the different deposition pattern can be explained. Exposure to flow accomplished by periodical soot removal, either by passive or active regeneration is the first step.
Technical Paper

Development of Energy Management Strategies and Analysis with Standard Drive Cycles for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

2012-09-10
2012-01-1609
In order to reduce fuel consumption in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, effective distribution of power demand between Fuel Cell and Battery is required. Energy management strategies can improve fuel economy by meeting power demand efficiently. This paper explains development of various energy management strategies for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle with Lithium Ion Battery. Drive cycles used for optimization and analysis of the strategies are New European Drive cycles (NEDC), Japanese Drive cycles (JAP1015), City Drive cycles, Highway Drive cycles (FHDS) and Federal Urban Drive cycles (FUDS). All Fuel consumption and ageing calculations are done using backward model implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Journal Article

Modelling of NOx Storage + SCR Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment System with Internal Generation of Ammonia

2010-04-12
2010-01-0887
Combination of an NOx storage and reduction catalyst (NSRC, called also lean NOx trap, LNT) and a catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH₃ (NH₃-SCR) offers a potential to significantly increase the efficiency of NSRC-based exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Under most situations the SCR catalyst is able to adsorb the NH₃ peaks generated in the NSRC during the regeneration and utilize it for additional NOx reduction in the course of the consequent lean phase. This synergy becomes more important with the aged NSRC, where generally lower NOx conversions and higher NH₃ yields in wider range of operating temperatures are observed (in comparison with the fresh or de-greened NSRC). In this paper we present global kinetic models for the NSRC (Pt/Ba/Ce/gγ-Al₂O₃ catalyst type) and NH₃-SCR (Fe-ZSM5 catalyst type).
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Open-Loop Controller to Design the Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics in Passenger Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-1107
In order to offer a wide range of driving experiences to their customers, original equipment manufacturers implement different driving programs. The driver is capable of manually switching between these programs which alter drivability parameters in the engine control unit. As a result, acceleration forces and gradients are modified, changing the perceived driving experience. Nowadays, drivability is calibrated iteratively through road testing. Hence, the resulting set of parameters incorporated within the engine control unit is strongly dependent on the individual sentiments and decisions of the test engineers. It is shown, that implementing a set of objective criteria offers a way to reduce the influences of personal preferences and sentiments in the drivability calibration process. In combination with the expertise of the test engineers, the desired vehicle behavior can be formalized into a transient set point sequence to give final shape to the acceleration behavior.
Technical Paper

Development of a LIF-Imaging System for Simultaneous High-Speed Visualization of Liquid Fuel and Oil Films in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0634
Downsizing and direct injection in modern DISI engines can lead to fuel impinging on the cylinder walls. The interaction of liquid fuel and engine oil due to fuel impinging on the cylinder wall causes problems in both lubrication and combustion. To analyze this issue with temporal and spatial resolution, we developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for simultaneous kHz-rate imaging of fuel and oil films on the cylinder wall. Engine oil was doped with traces of the laser dye pyrromethene 567, which fluoresces red after excitation by 532 nm laser radiation. Simultaneously, the liquid fuel was visualized by UV fluorescence of an aromatic “tracer” in a non-fluorescent surrogate fuel excited at 266 nm. Two combinations of fuel and tracer were investigated, iso-octane and toluene as well as a multi-component surrogate and anisole. The fluorescence from oil and fuel was spectrally separated and detected by two cameras.
Technical Paper

BLUETEC Diesel Technology - Clean, Efficient and Powerful

2008-04-14
2008-01-1182
Diesel engines have a strong contribution to the CO2 reduction in Europe in the past years. To enable these C02 reduction potential to the US market Mercedes Benz developed the BLUETEC technology for light duty diesel engines. The BLUETEC technology contains an optimized diesel engine and combustion system, an aftertreatment system with DOC, DPF and an active SCR catalyst with AdBlue Dosing System and an enhanced ECU functionality and calibration. For fulfilling the world strongest emission limits of the US legislation there have to be solutions developed for the handling of AdBlue under cold climate below -11°C, managing the refilling event, and the onboard diagnostic. To ensure the emission stability over full useful life on high NOx conversions level, intensive testing of the catalyst technology had to be done. In addition there are self learning functionalities for adapting the dosing strategy to ensure the maximum NOx performance.
Technical Paper

Bluetec Emission Control System for the US Tier 2 Bin 5 Legislation

2008-04-14
2008-01-1184
While the market share for diesel engines for LD vehicles in Europe has grown continuously in the past years, the market share in North America is still negligible. Until now, it has been possible to fulfill the limits for nitrogen oxides (NOx) both in Europe and in North America by engine measures alone, without using an active NOx aftertreatment system. With the introduction of Tier II Bin 8 and Tier II Bin 5 emissions legislation in the US in 2007, most new diesel applications will now require NOx aftertreatment. One of the possible technologies for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in lean exhaust gas is the NOx storage catalyst which has become the generally-accepted choice for engines with gasoline direct injection systems and which is also utilized in the current diesel Bluetec I systems from Daimler. For heavier applications urea-SCR is the preferred technology to fulfill NOx legislation limits.
Technical Paper

Model-based Optimization of Catalyst Zoning in Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0445
Catalyzed wall-flow particulate filters are increasingly applied in diesel exhaust after-treatment for multiple purposes, including low-temperature catalytic regeneration, CO and hydrocarbon conversion, as well as exothermic heat generation during forced regeneration. In order to optimize Precious Metals usage, it may be advantageous to apply the catalytic coating non-uniformly in the DPF, a technology referred to as “catalyst zoning”. In order to simulate the behavior of such a filter, one has to consider coupled transport-reaction modeling. In this work, a previously developed model is calibrated versus experimental data obtained with full-scale catalyzed filters on the engine dynamometer. In a next step, the model is validated under a variety of operating conditions using engine experiments with zoned filters. The performance of the zoned catalyst is analyzed by examining the transient temperature and species profiles in the inlet and outlet channels.
Technical Paper

Sensor for Directly Determining the State of a NOx Storage Catalyst

2008-04-14
2008-01-0447
In order to control NOx reduction with NOx storing lean NOx traps (LNT), a gas sensor downstream of the LNT is presently preferred. It is a disadvantage that no means are available to gauge directly the LNT NOx loading level and the catalyst quality. The presented novel sensor consists of interdigital electrodes that are deposited on a planar substrate. On its reverse side, a temperature sensor is applied. Both sides are covered with the original catalyst coating, allowing detecting directly electrical impedance and temperature of the coating. Such sensors were integrated in different positions of an LNT. It is shown in synthetic exhausts as well as in engine tests that in-situ measurements of the electrical impedance of the LNT coating are appropriate to determine directly the catalyst status. Hence, the local degree of NOx loading as well as the local regeneration status can be measured. Furthermore, sulfur poisoning, desulfurization, and thermal ageing can be directly seen.
Journal Article

Soot Simulation under Diesel Engine Conditions Using a Flamelet Approach

2009-11-02
2009-01-2679
The subject of this work is 3D numerical simulations of combustion and soot emissions for a passenger car diesel engine. The CFD code STAR-CD version 3.26 [1] is used to resolve the flowfield. Soot is modeled using a detailed kinetic soot model described by Mauss [2]. The model includes a detailed description of the formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The coupling between the turbulent flowfield and the soot model is achieved through a flamelet library approach, with transport of the moments of the soot particle size distribution function as outlined by Wenzel et al. [3]. In this work we extended this approach by considering acetylene feedback between the soot model and the combustion model. The model was further improved by using new gas-phase kinetics and new fitting procedures for the flamelet soot library.
Journal Article

Predicted Roughness Perception for Simulated Vehicle Interior Noise

2012-06-13
2012-01-1561
In the past the exterior and interior noise level of vehicles has been largely reduced to follow stricter legislation and due to the demand of the customers. As a consequence, the noise quality and no longer the noise level inside the vehicle plays a crucial role. For an economic development of new powertrains it is important to assess noise quality already in early development stages by the use of simulation. Recent progress in NVH simulation methods of powertrain and vehicle in time and frequency domain provides the basis to pre-calculated sound pressure signals at arbitrary positions in the car interior. Advanced simulation tools for elastic multi-body simulation and novel strategies to measure acoustical transfer paths are combined to achieve this goal. In order to evaluate the obtained sound impression a roughness prediction model has been developed. The proposed roughness model is a continuation of the model published by Hoeldrich and Pflueger.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Transient Heat-Up of a Passenger Vehicle during a Trailer Towing Uphill Drive

2013-04-08
2013-01-0873
In the digital prototype development process of a new Mercedes-Benz, thermal protection is an important task that has to be fulfilled. In the early stages of development, numerical methods are used to detect thermal hotspots in order to protect temperature sensitive parts. These methods involve transient full Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) simulations to predict dynamic vehicle heat-up during critical load cases. In order to simulate thermal control mechanisms, a coupled 1D to 3D thermal vehicle model is built in which the coolant and oil circuit of the engine, as well as the exhaust flow are captured in detail. When performing a transient 3D VTM analysis, the conduction and radiation phenomena are simulated using a transient structure model while the convective phenomena are co-simulated in a steady state fluid model. Both models are brought to interaction at predetermined points by an automatized coupling method.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Spray-Induced Vortex Structures during Multiple Injections of a DISI Engine in Stratified Operation Using High-Speed-PIV

2013-04-08
2013-01-0563
Modern gasoline direct injection engines with spray-guided combustion processes require a stable and reliable fuel mixture formation as well as an optimal stratification at time of ignition. Due to the limited time for this process the temporal and spatial analysis of the in-cylinder flow field and its influence is of significant interest. The application of a piezo injector with outward opening nozzle and its capability to realize multiple injections within the compression stroke provides additional degrees of freedom for the stratified engine operation. To improve the performance of this combination a detailed knowledge of the in-cylinder flow field and its interaction with the spray propagation during and after multiple injections is essential. The flow field measurements were applied in an optical borescope single-cylinder research engine using a high-speed particle image velocimetry (HSPIV) setup.
Journal Article

Cold Start Effect Phenomena over Zeolite SCR Catalysts for Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

2013-04-08
2013-01-1064
NH₃/urea SCR is a very effective and widely used technology for the abatement of NOx from diesel exhaust. The SCR mechanism is well understood and the catalyst behavior can be predicted by mathematical models - as long as operation above the temperature limit for AdBlue® injection is considered. The behavior below this level is less understood. During the first seconds up to minutes after cold start, complete NOx abatement can be observed over an SCR catalyst in test bench experiments, together with a significant increase in temperature after the converter (ca. 100 K). In this work these effects have been investigated over a monolith Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst. Concentration step experiments varying NO, NO₂ and H₂O have been carried out in lab scale, starting from room temperature. Further, the interaction of C₃H₆ and CO with NOx over the SCR has been investigated.
Journal Article

The NH3 Inhibition Effect in the Standard SCR Reaction over a Commercial Fe-zeolite Catalyst for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2011-04-12
2011-01-1319
Transient and steady-state kinetic data are herein presented to analyze the inhibiting effect of ammonia on the NH₃-SCR of NO at low temperatures over a Fe-zeolite commercial catalyst for vehicles. It is shown that in SCR converter models a rate expression accounting for NH₃ inhibition of the Standard SCR reaction is needed in order to predict the specific dynamics observed both in lab-scale and in engine test bench runs upon switching on and off the ammonia feed. Two redox, dual site kinetic models are developed which ascribe such inhibition to the spill-over of ammonia from its adsorption sites, associated with the zeolite, to the redox sites, associated with the Fe promoter. Better agreement both with lab-scale intrinsic kinetic runs and with engine test-bench data, particularly during transients associated with dosing of ammonia to the SCR catalyst, is obtained assuming slow migration of NH₃ between the two sites.
Technical Paper

New V6-Diesel-Engine for the Daimler Van “Sprinter” Certified to Emission-Regulation NAFTA2007

2008-04-14
2008-01-1194
The new Sprinter targets the USA and Canada markets nationwide to reconfirm Daimlers statement for Diesel engine in vans. Consequentially, the MY2007 Sprinter follows his successful predecessor as again the first - and up to now the only - Diesel vehicle in its class now meeting even the strict EPA07 requirement in California. For the growing market in North America an unique development for the successor for the previous 5-cylinder Diesel Sprinter had been made. The new 3 liter V6 Diesel engine is based on numerous corporate wide versions from Mercedes and Chrysler Passenger cars and SUVs and has its roots also in smaller and larger Mercedes vans. Effective January 2007 the NAFTA04 requirements have been replaced by the NAFTA07 values. Meeting those led to significant changes of the latest Sprinter in European EURO4 version. Both, engine and exhaust hardware as well as the ECU-data had been modified consequentially.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of DOC+DPF+SCR systems:DOC Influence on SCR Performance

2008-04-14
2008-01-0867
A numerical model for a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is presented. It is based on a spatially 1D, physical and chemically based modeling of the relevant processes within the catalytic monolith. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe the chemical reactions. Water condensation and evaporation was also considered, in order to predict the cold start behavior. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments. A correlation between the kinetic parameters and the noble metal loading was developed. The model was used in combination with a SCR-Model to study the influence of changes of noble metal loading and DOC volume on the overall transient NOx performance of a DOC+DPF+SCR system.
Technical Paper

Challenges for the Next Generation of BlueTEC Emission Technology

2011-04-12
2011-01-0294
Mercedes-Benz BlueTEC passenger cars have been on the cutting edge of clean diesel technology since 2006. These BlueTEC vehicles furthermore passed millions of kilometers in the hands of customers. SCR-equipped passenger cars already meet the most stringent exhaust emissions standards in international markets such as the USA, Europe and Japan. Diesel engines with BlueTEC technology also reduce CO₂ emissions and provide the high torque and performance associated with the diesel engine in addition to keeping exhaust emissions at the lowest possible level. Nowadays the requirements for SCR emission concepts are increasing continuously. In fact the emission legislation is getting stricter with the LEVIII emission standards in 2015. Additionally the requirements and effort for on-board diagnosis are increasing year after year. In combination with ambitious CO₂ targets all these issues constitute the further challenges of BlueTEC SCR emission concepts for worldwide markets.
X