Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 14 of 14
Journal Article

Air Spring Air Damper: Modelling and Dynamic Performance in Case of Small Excitations

2013-05-13
2013-01-1922
Air spring systems gain more and more popularity in the automotive industry and with the ever growing demand for comfort nowadays they are almost inevitable. Some significant advantages over conventional steel springs are appealing for commercial vehicles as well as for the modern passenger vehicles in the luxury class. Current production air spring systems exist in combination with hydraulic shock absorbers (integrated or resolved). An alternative is to use the medium air not only as a spring but also as a damper: a so-called air spring air damper. Air spring air dampers are force elements which could be a great step for the chassis technology due to their functionality (frequency selectivity, load levelling, load independent vibration behaviour, load dependent damping). Some of their design which avoid dynamic seals by the using of rubber bellows contribute to a better ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Standardization of Wiring Harness Data Formats between Truck OEMs and Suppliers

2011-09-13
2011-01-2270
The continuously integration of electrics and electronics (EE) in the last decades is one of the main key drivers for innovation and business success of the Automotive OEMs. This is also applicable for truck manufacturers. On the other side factors like the rising vehicle complexity, number of variants and the warranty costs for EE issues are increasing the pressure on the engineering teams responsible for the mechatronic systems. To address these issues one of the key activities in the European market (focus on Germany) during the last decade was to introduce industry-wide standards for the data transfer of wiring harness data between OEM and harness supplier. In this paper the benefits and technical background of using the standards KBL and KOMP formats within the MB-Trucks brand will be presented. Moreover the role of the Information Technology (IT) will be explained in detail.
Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

2019-04-02
2019-01-0264
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.
Technical Paper

μAFS High Resolution ADB/AFS Solution

2016-04-05
2016-01-1410
A cooperation of several research partners supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education proposes a new active matrix LED light source. A multi pixel flip chip LED array is directly mounted to an active driver IC. A total of 1024 pixel can be individually addressed through a serial data bus. Several of these units are integrated in a prototype headlamp to enable advanced light distribution patterns in an evaluation vehicle.
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Open-Loop Controller to Design the Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics in Passenger Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-1107
In order to offer a wide range of driving experiences to their customers, original equipment manufacturers implement different driving programs. The driver is capable of manually switching between these programs which alter drivability parameters in the engine control unit. As a result, acceleration forces and gradients are modified, changing the perceived driving experience. Nowadays, drivability is calibrated iteratively through road testing. Hence, the resulting set of parameters incorporated within the engine control unit is strongly dependent on the individual sentiments and decisions of the test engineers. It is shown, that implementing a set of objective criteria offers a way to reduce the influences of personal preferences and sentiments in the drivability calibration process. In combination with the expertise of the test engineers, the desired vehicle behavior can be formalized into a transient set point sequence to give final shape to the acceleration behavior.
Technical Paper

How to Model Real-World Driving Behavior? Probability-Based Driver Model for Energy Analyses

2019-04-02
2019-01-0511
A wide variety of applications such as driver assistant and energy management systems are researched and developed in virtual test environments. The safe testing of the applications in early stages is based on parameterizable and reproducible simulations of different driving scenarios. One possibility is modeling the microscopic driving behavior to simulate the longitudinal vehicle dynamics of individual vehicles. The currently used driver models are characterized by a conflict regarding comprehensibility, accuracy and calibration effort. Due to the importance for further analyses this conflict of interests is addressed by the presentation of a new microscopic driver model in this paper. The proposed driver model stores measured driving behaviors with its statistical distributions in maps. Thereby, the driving task is divided into free flow, braking in front of stops and following vehicles ahead. This makes it possible to display the driving behavior in its entirety.
Technical Paper

Approach for Parameter Determination for Objective Comfort Evaluation of the Vehicle Vibration Induced by Powertrain

2014-06-30
2014-01-2065
The driving comfort influences the customer purchase decision; hence it is an important aspect for the vehicle development. To better quantify the comfort level and reduce the experiment costs in the development process, the subjective comfort assessment by test drivers is nowadays more and more replaced by the objective comfort evaluation. Hereby the vibration comfort is described by scalar objective characteristic parameters that correlate with the subjective assessments. The correlation analysis requires the assessments and measurements at different vehicle vibration. To determine the objective parameters regarding the powertrain excitations, most experiments in the previous studies were carried out in several test vehicles with different powertrain units.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Pre-Crash Safety Systems to Occupant Protection in Offset Frontal Impacts

2015-01-14
2015-26-0164
The ASSESS project is a European Commission co-funded project that aimed to develop harmonized and standardized assessment procedures for collision mitigation and avoidance systems. ASSESS was one of the first European projects which dealt in depth with the concept of integrated safety, defining methodologies to analyse vehicle safety from a global point of view. As such, the developed procedures included driver behaviour evaluation, pre-crash and crash system performance evaluation and socio-economic assessment. The activities performed for the crash evaluation focussed on the influence of braking manoeuvres in occupant positioning through dynamic braking manoeuvres with real occupants and Madymo and LS-Dyna simulations. The assessment of the passive safety protection level according to the results of the influence of the active systems is based on sled testing and full vehicle testing.
Journal Article

Prediction of Interior Noise in a Sedan Due to Exterior Flow

2015-06-15
2015-01-2331
Aero-vibro-acoustic prediction of interior noise associated with exterior flow requires accurate predictions of both fluctuating surface pressures across the exterior of a vehicle and efficient models of the vibro-acoustic transmission of these surface pressures to the interior of a vehicle. The simulation strategy used in this paper combines both CFD and vibro-acoustic methods. An accurate excitation field (which accounts for both hydrodynamic and acoustic pressure fluctuations) is calculated with a hybrid CAA approach based on an incompressible unsteady flow field with an additional acoustic wave equation. To obtain the interior noise level at the driver's ears a vibro-acoustic model is used to calculate the response of the structure and interior cavities. The aero-vibro-acoustic simulation strategy is demonstrated for a Mercedes-Benz S-class and the predictions are compared to experimental wind tunnel measurements.
Journal Article

From Exterior Wind Noise Loads to Interior Cabin Noise: A Validation Study of a Generic Automotive Vehicle

2015-06-15
2015-01-2328
The object of the validation study presented in this paper is a generic vehicle, the so-called SAE body, developed by a consortium of German car manufacturers (Audi, Daimler, Porsche, Volkswagen). Many experiments have been performed by the abovementioned consortium on this object in the past to investigate its behavior when exposed to fluid flow. Some of these experiments were used to validate the simulation results discussed in the present paper. It is demonstrated that the simulation of the exterior flow is able to represent the transient hydrodynamic structures and at the same time both the generation of the acoustic sources and the propagation of the acoustic waves. Performing wave number filtering allows to identify the acoustic phenomena and separate them from the hydrodynamic effects. In a next step, the noise transferred to the interior of the cabin through the glass panel was calculated, using a Statistical Energy Analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Droplets Condensation on a Windshield: Prediction of Fogging Behavior

2015-04-14
2015-01-0360
An accurate model to predict the formation of fogging and defogging which occurs for low windshield temperatures is helpful for designing the air-conditioning system in a car. Using a multiphase flow approach and additional user-defined functions within the commercial CFD-software STAR-CCM+, a model which is able to calculate the amount of water droplets on the windshield from condensation and which causes the fogging is set up. Different parameters like relative humidity, air temperature, mass flow rate and droplet distributions are considered. Because of the condition of the windshield's surface, the condensation occurs as tiny droplets with different sizes. The distribution of these very small droplets must be obtained to estimate numerically the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation process to predict the defogging time.
Technical Paper

Holistic Approach for Improved Safety Including a Proposal of New Virtual Test Conditions of Small Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0571
In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology to Compute Temperatures of a Rotating Cardan Shaft

2013-04-08
2013-01-0843
In this paper a new numerical methodology to compute component temperatures of a rotating cardan shaft is described. In general temperatures of the cardan shaft are mainly dominated by radiation from the exhaust gas system and air temperatures in the transmission tunnel and underbody. While driving the cardan shaft is rotating. This yields a uniform temperature distribution of the circumference of the shaft. However most simulation approaches for heat protection are nowadays steady-state computations. In these simulations the rotation of the cardan shaft is not considered. In particular next to the exhaust gas system the distribution of the temperatures of the cardan shaft is not uniform but shows hot temperatures due to radiation at the side facing the exhaust gas system and lower temperatures at the other side. This paper describes a new computational approach that is averaging the radiative and convective heat fluxes circumferentially over bands of the cardan shaft.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Develop Energy Efficient Operation Strategies and Derivation of Requirements for Vehicle Subsystems Using the Vehicle Air Conditioning System as an Example

2013-04-08
2013-01-0568
Rising oil prices and increasing strict emission legislation force vehicle manufacturers to reduce fuel consumption of future vehicles. In order to meet this target, the process of converting fuel into useable energy and the use of this energy by the different energy-consuming vehicle's subsystems have to be examined. Vehicles' subsystems consist of energy-supplying, energy-consuming, and in some cases energy-storing components. Due to the high complexity of these systems and their interaction, optimization of their energy efficiency is a challenging task. By introducing individual operational strategies for each subsystem, it is possible to increase the energy efficiency for a specific function. To further improve the vehicle's overall energy efficiency, holistic control strategies are introduced that distribute the energy between the subsystems intelligently.
X