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Challenges in Automotive Electrification and Powertrain Component Development

An overview of Daimler?s progression to advance powertrain technology in a growth industry shows many different solutions to improvement in transportation. Daimler continues to make breakthroughs in technology development and application building on 125 years of automotive development. Optimization of current powertrains will enable a significant gain in CO2/mi reductions, that dependent on product mix can be augmented with additional technologies. There is however no bypass to some form of electrification, enabling efficiency gains and alternative forms of power supply. Development of hybrid powertrains continues in an established manner and enhanced development of further electrified powertrains are in development. Organizationally and technically, significant skills and adjustments need to continue to be undertaken enabling OEMs and in particular the supply base to develop optimized solutions efficiently. The outlook is bright for novel component development and innovation.
Technical Paper

Virtual Transfer Path Analysis at Daimler Trucks

As for passenger cars, the overall noise and vibration comfort in commercial trucks and busses becomes an increasingly important sales argument. In order to effectively reduce the noise and vibration levels it is required to identify possible NVH issues at an early stage in the vehicle development process. For this reason a so-called “Virtual Transfer Path Analysis” (VTPA) method has been implemented which combines the results obtained from the conventional multi-body simulation and finite element method approaches. The resulting VTPA tool enables Daimler Trucks to systematically investigate and predict the complex interaction between powertrain excitation and the resulting vehicle response well before hardware prototypes become available. An overview of the theory is presented as well as the practical application and outcome of the technique applied in a past product development.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition and Combustion Process on Thermodynamic Parameters of SI Engines

In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport in Diesel Particle Filters

Lubricant oil derived ash deposits still represent a major issue in diesel particulate filter operation in vehicles. In literature various ash deposition patterns are described. The two boundary deposition patterns are (a) wall layer and (b) filling at the back end of the inlet channels. The patterns are often associated with different regeneration methods. Continuous regeneration is supposed to result in a homogeneous ash layer, whereas periodic (active) regeneration is reported to result in back end filling. The current contribution describes the basic mechanisms associated with ash transport phenomena in particle filters. On the basis of (a) frequency of ash exposure to flow (b) ash particle structure re-entrainment and finally (c) axial ash transport the different deposition pattern can be explained. Exposure to flow accomplished by periodical soot removal, either by passive or active regeneration is the first step.
Technical Paper

Standardization of Wiring Harness Data Formats between Truck OEMs and Suppliers

The continuously integration of electrics and electronics (EE) in the last decades is one of the main key drivers for innovation and business success of the Automotive OEMs. This is also applicable for truck manufacturers. On the other side factors like the rising vehicle complexity, number of variants and the warranty costs for EE issues are increasing the pressure on the engineering teams responsible for the mechatronic systems. To address these issues one of the key activities in the European market (focus on Germany) during the last decade was to introduce industry-wide standards for the data transfer of wiring harness data between OEM and harness supplier. In this paper the benefits and technical background of using the standards KBL and KOMP formats within the MB-Trucks brand will be presented. Moreover the role of the Information Technology (IT) will be explained in detail.
Technical Paper

Towards an Aspect Driven Approach for the Analysis, Evaluation and Optimization of Safety Within the Automotive Industry

An approach will be presented how development projects for safety-related and software-intensive automotive systems can be controlled through the application of model-based risk assessment. Therefore specific control measures have to be developed, which represent the degree of fulfilment of several aspects of safety-related developments. The control measures are evaluated through the analysis of risk-reducing aspects, for which the process of identification and specification is described. Thus, a framework for the creation of a probabilistic and aspect-oriented risk-analysis model (AORA) for safety related projects within automotive industries is currently under development. With respect to the upcoming safety standard ISO 26262 the twofold approach focuses on both, the identification and specification of risk-reducing aspects within the development as well as the application of a probabilistic reasoning model.
Technical Paper

μAFS High Resolution ADB/AFS Solution

A cooperation of several research partners supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education proposes a new active matrix LED light source. A multi pixel flip chip LED array is directly mounted to an active driver IC. A total of 1024 pixel can be individually addressed through a serial data bus. Several of these units are integrated in a prototype headlamp to enable advanced light distribution patterns in an evaluation vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of a LIF-Imaging System for Simultaneous High-Speed Visualization of Liquid Fuel and Oil Films in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Downsizing and direct injection in modern DISI engines can lead to fuel impinging on the cylinder walls. The interaction of liquid fuel and engine oil due to fuel impinging on the cylinder wall causes problems in both lubrication and combustion. To analyze this issue with temporal and spatial resolution, we developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for simultaneous kHz-rate imaging of fuel and oil films on the cylinder wall. Engine oil was doped with traces of the laser dye pyrromethene 567, which fluoresces red after excitation by 532 nm laser radiation. Simultaneously, the liquid fuel was visualized by UV fluorescence of an aromatic “tracer” in a non-fluorescent surrogate fuel excited at 266 nm. Two combinations of fuel and tracer were investigated, iso-octane and toluene as well as a multi-component surrogate and anisole. The fluorescence from oil and fuel was spectrally separated and detected by two cameras.
Technical Paper

Using Timing Analysis for Evaluating Communication Behavior and Network Topologies in an Early Design Phase of Automotive Electric/Electronic Architectures

The increasing functionality and complexity of future electric/electronic architectures requires efficient methods and tools to support design decisions, which are taken in early development phases 6. For the past four years, a holistic approach for architecture development has been established at Mercedes-Benz Cars R&D department. At its core is a seamless design flow, including the conception, the analysis and the documentation for electric/electronic architectures. One of the actual challenges in the design of electric/electronic architectures concerns communication behavior and network topologies. The increasing data exchange between the ECUs creates high requirements for the networks. With the introduction of FlexRay 21 and Ethernet the automotive network architecture become a lot more heterogeneous. Especially gateways must fulfill many new requirements to handle the strict periodic schedule of FlexRay and the partly event-triggered communication on CAN-busses 23.
Technical Paper

BLUETEC Diesel Technology - Clean, Efficient and Powerful

Diesel engines have a strong contribution to the CO2 reduction in Europe in the past years. To enable these C02 reduction potential to the US market Mercedes Benz developed the BLUETEC technology for light duty diesel engines. The BLUETEC technology contains an optimized diesel engine and combustion system, an aftertreatment system with DOC, DPF and an active SCR catalyst with AdBlue Dosing System and an enhanced ECU functionality and calibration. For fulfilling the world strongest emission limits of the US legislation there have to be solutions developed for the handling of AdBlue under cold climate below -11°C, managing the refilling event, and the onboard diagnostic. To ensure the emission stability over full useful life on high NOx conversions level, intensive testing of the catalyst technology had to be done. In addition there are self learning functionalities for adapting the dosing strategy to ensure the maximum NOx performance.
Technical Paper

Bluetec Emission Control System for the US Tier 2 Bin 5 Legislation

While the market share for diesel engines for LD vehicles in Europe has grown continuously in the past years, the market share in North America is still negligible. Until now, it has been possible to fulfill the limits for nitrogen oxides (NOx) both in Europe and in North America by engine measures alone, without using an active NOx aftertreatment system. With the introduction of Tier II Bin 8 and Tier II Bin 5 emissions legislation in the US in 2007, most new diesel applications will now require NOx aftertreatment. One of the possible technologies for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in lean exhaust gas is the NOx storage catalyst which has become the generally-accepted choice for engines with gasoline direct injection systems and which is also utilized in the current diesel Bluetec I systems from Daimler. For heavier applications urea-SCR is the preferred technology to fulfill NOx legislation limits.
Technical Paper

Model-based Optimization of Catalyst Zoning in Diesel Particulate Filters

Catalyzed wall-flow particulate filters are increasingly applied in diesel exhaust after-treatment for multiple purposes, including low-temperature catalytic regeneration, CO and hydrocarbon conversion, as well as exothermic heat generation during forced regeneration. In order to optimize Precious Metals usage, it may be advantageous to apply the catalytic coating non-uniformly in the DPF, a technology referred to as “catalyst zoning”. In order to simulate the behavior of such a filter, one has to consider coupled transport-reaction modeling. In this work, a previously developed model is calibrated versus experimental data obtained with full-scale catalyzed filters on the engine dynamometer. In a next step, the model is validated under a variety of operating conditions using engine experiments with zoned filters. The performance of the zoned catalyst is analyzed by examining the transient temperature and species profiles in the inlet and outlet channels.
Technical Paper

Sensor for Directly Determining the State of a NOx Storage Catalyst

In order to control NOx reduction with NOx storing lean NOx traps (LNT), a gas sensor downstream of the LNT is presently preferred. It is a disadvantage that no means are available to gauge directly the LNT NOx loading level and the catalyst quality. The presented novel sensor consists of interdigital electrodes that are deposited on a planar substrate. On its reverse side, a temperature sensor is applied. Both sides are covered with the original catalyst coating, allowing detecting directly electrical impedance and temperature of the coating. Such sensors were integrated in different positions of an LNT. It is shown in synthetic exhausts as well as in engine tests that in-situ measurements of the electrical impedance of the LNT coating are appropriate to determine directly the catalyst status. Hence, the local degree of NOx loading as well as the local regeneration status can be measured. Furthermore, sulfur poisoning, desulfurization, and thermal ageing can be directly seen.
Technical Paper

Approach for Parameter Determination for Objective Comfort Evaluation of the Vehicle Vibration Induced by Powertrain

The driving comfort influences the customer purchase decision; hence it is an important aspect for the vehicle development. To better quantify the comfort level and reduce the experiment costs in the development process, the subjective comfort assessment by test drivers is nowadays more and more replaced by the objective comfort evaluation. Hereby the vibration comfort is described by scalar objective characteristic parameters that correlate with the subjective assessments. The correlation analysis requires the assessments and measurements at different vehicle vibration. To determine the objective parameters regarding the powertrain excitations, most experiments in the previous studies were carried out in several test vehicles with different powertrain units.
Journal Article

The NH3 Inhibition Effect in the Standard SCR Reaction over a Commercial Fe-zeolite Catalyst for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment: An Experimental and Modeling Study

Transient and steady-state kinetic data are herein presented to analyze the inhibiting effect of ammonia on the NH₃-SCR of NO at low temperatures over a Fe-zeolite commercial catalyst for vehicles. It is shown that in SCR converter models a rate expression accounting for NH₃ inhibition of the Standard SCR reaction is needed in order to predict the specific dynamics observed both in lab-scale and in engine test bench runs upon switching on and off the ammonia feed. Two redox, dual site kinetic models are developed which ascribe such inhibition to the spill-over of ammonia from its adsorption sites, associated with the zeolite, to the redox sites, associated with the Fe promoter. Better agreement both with lab-scale intrinsic kinetic runs and with engine test-bench data, particularly during transients associated with dosing of ammonia to the SCR catalyst, is obtained assuming slow migration of NH₃ between the two sites.
Technical Paper

New V6-Diesel-Engine for the Daimler Van “Sprinter” Certified to Emission-Regulation NAFTA2007

The new Sprinter targets the USA and Canada markets nationwide to reconfirm Daimlers statement for Diesel engine in vans. Consequentially, the MY2007 Sprinter follows his successful predecessor as again the first - and up to now the only - Diesel vehicle in its class now meeting even the strict EPA07 requirement in California. For the growing market in North America an unique development for the successor for the previous 5-cylinder Diesel Sprinter had been made. The new 3 liter V6 Diesel engine is based on numerous corporate wide versions from Mercedes and Chrysler Passenger cars and SUVs and has its roots also in smaller and larger Mercedes vans. Effective January 2007 the NAFTA04 requirements have been replaced by the NAFTA07 values. Meeting those led to significant changes of the latest Sprinter in European EURO4 version. Both, engine and exhaust hardware as well as the ECU-data had been modified consequentially.
Technical Paper

Application and Validation of CAE Methods for Comprehensive Durability Assessment of Leaf Springs with Measurement and Testing

Securing the desired strength and durability characteristics of suspension components is one of the most important topics in the development of commercial vehicles because these components undergo multiaxial variable amplitude loading. Leaf springs are essential for the suspension systems of trucks and they are considered as security relevant components in the product development phase. In order to guide the engineers in the design and testing department, a simulation method is developed as explained by Bakir et al. in a recently published SAE paper [1]. The main aim of the present study is to illustrate the validation of this simulation method for the durability of leaf springs based on the results from testing and measurements. In order to verify this CAE Method, the calculated stresses on the leaf springs are compared with the results of strain gage measurements and the fatigue failures of leaf springs are correlated with the calculated damage values.
Journal Article

Modeling and Numerical Calculation of Snow Particles Entering the Air Intake of an Automobile

A physically based model to predict the amount of snow which is entering the air intake of an automobile is extremely important for the automotive industry. It allows to improve the air intake system in the development state so that new vehicles can be developed in a shorter time. Using an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software we set up a model and calculated the snow ingress into an air intake of an automobile. In our numerical investigations we considered different particle shapes when calculating the drag coefficient, different coefficients of restitution and different particle sizes. Furthermore two-way coupling was considered. To obtain key parameters for the simulation, we measured the size of snow particles in the Daimler climatic wind tunnel in Sindelfingen by using a microscope and a measuring device from Malvern. Besides we used mechanical snow traps to determine the snow mass flux in the climatic wind tunnel and on a test area in Sweden.
Journal Article

From Exterior Wind Noise Loads to Interior Cabin Noise: A Validation Study of a Generic Automotive Vehicle

The object of the validation study presented in this paper is a generic vehicle, the so-called SAE body, developed by a consortium of German car manufacturers (Audi, Daimler, Porsche, Volkswagen). Many experiments have been performed by the abovementioned consortium on this object in the past to investigate its behavior when exposed to fluid flow. Some of these experiments were used to validate the simulation results discussed in the present paper. It is demonstrated that the simulation of the exterior flow is able to represent the transient hydrodynamic structures and at the same time both the generation of the acoustic sources and the propagation of the acoustic waves. Performing wave number filtering allows to identify the acoustic phenomena and separate them from the hydrodynamic effects. In a next step, the noise transferred to the interior of the cabin through the glass panel was calculated, using a Statistical Energy Analysis approach.