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Video

SCR Deactivation Kinetics for Model-Based Control and Accelerated Aging Applications

2012-06-18
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts are used to reduce NOx emissions from internal combustion engines in a variety of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and a Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NH3 storage capacity measurement data as a function of aging time and temperature. Addressing one objective of the work, these data can be used in model-based control algorithms to calculate the current NH3 storage capacity of an SCR catalyst operating in the field, based on time and temperature history. The model-based control then uses the calculated value for effective DEF control and prevention of excessive NH3 slip. Addressing a second objective of the work, accelerated thermal aging of SCR catalysts may be achieved by elevating temperatures above normal operating temperatures.
Video

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-06-18
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Video

Brief Investigation of SCR High Temperature N2O Production

2012-06-18
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 298-310 [1,2] (298-310 times more potent than carbon dioxide (CO2)). As a result, any aftertreatment system that generates N2O must be well understood to be used effectively. Under low temperature conditions, N2O can be produced by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts. The chemistry is reasonably well understood with N2O formed by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate [3]. Ammonium nitrate and N2O form in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) gas mixtures that are high in nitrogen dioxide (NO2)[4]. This mechanism occurs at a relatively low temperature of about 200°C, and can be controlled by maintaining the nitric oxide (NO)/NO2 ratio above 1. However, N2O has also been observed at relatively high temperatures, in the region of 500°C.
Video

Evaluation of a NOx Transient Response Method for OBD of SCR Catalysts

2012-01-30
OBD requirements for aftertreatment system components require monitoring of the individual system components. One such component can be an NH3-SCR catalyst for NOx reduction. An OBD method that has been suggested is to generate positive or negative spikes in the inlet NH3 concentration, and monitor the outlet NOx transient response. A slow response indicates that the catalyst is maintaining its NH3 storage capacity, and therefore it is probably not degraded. A fast response indicates the catalyst has lost NH3 storage capacity, and may be degraded. The purpose of the work performed at Southwest Research Institute was to assess this approach for feasibility, effectiveness and practicality. The presentation will describe the work performed, results obtained, and implications for applying this method in test laboratory and real-world situations. Presenter Gordon J. Bartley, Southwest Research Institute
Video

Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

2012-05-10
The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

External Corrosion Resistance of CuproBraze® Radiators

2001-05-14
2001-01-1718
New technology for the manufacturing of copper/brass heat exchangers has been developed and the first automotive radiators are already in operation in vehicles. This new technology is called CuproBraze®. One of the essential questions raised is the external corrosion resistance with reference to the present soldered copper/brass radiators and to the brazed aluminium radiators. Based on the results from electrochemical measurements and from four different types of accelerated corrosion tests, the external corrosion resistance of the CuproBraze® radiators is clearly better than that of the soldered copper/brass radiators and competitive with the brazed aluminum radiators, especially as regards marine atmosphere. Due to the relatively high strength of the CuproBraze® heat exchangers, down gauging of fins and tubes in some applications is attractive. High performance coatings can ensure long lifetime from corrosion point of view, even for thin gauge heat exchangers.
Technical Paper

Active Boom Noise Damping of Dodge Durango

2001-04-30
2001-01-1614
Two active boom noise damping techniques using a Helmholtz resonator-based compensator and a lead compensator called a positive pressure feedback have been developed at the University of Dayton [1]. The two damping techniques are of feedback type and their compensators can be implemented in software or hardware (using inexpensive operational amplifiers). The active damping system would rely on a speaker, a low-cost microphone, two accelerometers, and an electronic circuit (or a micro-controller) to add damping to the offending low-frequency vibroacoustic modes of the cavity. The simplicity of the active boom noise damping system lends itself to be incorporated into a vehicle's sound system. The Helmholtz resonator-based strategy is implemented on a Dodge Durango sport utility vehicle. The control scheme adds appreciable amount of damping to the first cavity mode and the first structurally induced acoustic mode of the cabin.
Technical Paper

Shunt Piezo Damping of a Radiating Panel

2001-04-30
2001-01-1576
The performance of shunt piezo damping is demonstrated by adding damping to the first mode of a plate with the dimensions of 28 by 38 cm and thickness of 0.8 mm. A small 1 by 2 inch piezoelectric patch with the thickness of 10 mil is bonded to the plate at a location where strain due to the first mode of vibration is high. The peizo is shunted with a resistance-inductance (RL) circuit, tuned to the first resonance frequency of the plate at 38 Hz. The plate is excited at its first natural frequency and the power spectrums of the acceleration at the center of the plate with and without the damping treatment were measured. These measurements showed that the shunt piezo damping treatment tuned to the first mode added an appreciable amount of damping to that mode.
Technical Paper

Engine Internal Dynamic Force Identification and the Combination with Engine Structural and Vibro-Acoustic Transfer Information

2001-04-30
2001-01-1596
The vibration-generating mechanisms inside an engine are highly non-linear (combustion, valve operation, hydraulic bearing behavior, etc.). However, the engine structure, under the influence of these vibration-generating mechanisms, responds in a highly linear way. For the development and optimization of the engine structure for noise and vibration it is beneficial to use fast and ‘simple’ linear models, like linear FE-models, measured modal models or measured FRF-models. All these models allow a qualitative assessment of variants without excitation information. But, for true optimization, internal excitation spectra are needed in order to avoid that effort is spent to optimize non-critical system properties. Unfortunately, these internal excitation spectra are difficult to measure. Direct measurement of combustion pressure is still feasible, but crank-bearing forces, piston guidance forces etc. can only be identified indirectly.
Technical Paper

Development of an Air Intake System Using Vibro-Acoustics Numerical Modeling

2001-04-30
2001-01-1519
This paper describes the use of Vibro-Acoustics numerical modeling for prediction of an Air Intake System noise level for a commercial vehicle. The use of numerical methods to predict vehicle interior noise levels as well as sound radiated from components is gaining acceptance in the automotive industry [1]. The products of most industries can benefit from improved acoustic design. On the other hand, sound emission regulation has become more and more rigorous and customers expect quieter products. The aim of this work it is to assess the Vibro-Acoustics behavior of Air Intake System and influence of it in the sound pressure level of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Test Based Methods for High Frequency Structureborne Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1523
NVH engineers typically are dealing with issues that relate to shake, harshness and low frequency noise and vibration concerns. However there is a greater importance being placed on dealing with high frequency structureborne noise problems which are related to gear meshing forces and drivetrain dynamics. This paper presents a case study of a high frequency structureborne noise problem. The objective of the paper is to show the application and effectiveness of using various testing based techniques such as Transfer Path, Running modes, and Mobility analysis along with acoustic excited operating deflection shapes for solving these problems in a timely and effective manner.
Technical Paper

Errors in the Driveline System Balancing Process

2001-04-30
2001-01-1504
Single-plane balancing is a very well-understood process, whereby an imbalance vector is determined and then opposed by a similar vector of equal magnitude but 180° out of phase. This is used in many situations to improve machine performance, vibration, noise etc. However, there is inherent in this process a sensitivity to errors of measurement and correction, since a large imbalance vector and the equally large correction vector must be of exactly equal magnitude and exactly 180° apart for perfect balance. This paper examines the effect of errors in measurement of the initial imbalance and correction of it on the residual balance of automotive drivelines. In particular, it examines the effects of the errors present in a system whereby a system balance correction is made, on a driveline assembly, at discrete points around a given plane (at bolt locations). Errors occur in measurement of vibration, in calculating correction masses and in applying those correction masses.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Determination of the noise contributions of engine surfaces

2001-04-30
2001-01-1482
One of the key elements in efforts to minimize the noise emmissionis of engines and other machinery is the knowledge of the main noise radiating surfaces and the relation between measurable surface vibration and the sound pressure. Under the name of Airborne Source Quantification (ASQ), various techniques have been developed to discretize and quantify the source strength, and noise contributions, of vibrating surface patches of machinery or vehicle components. The noise contributions of patches to the sound pressure at specific locations in the sound field or to the total radiated sound power are identified. The source strength of equivalent point sources, the acoustic transfer from the source surface to critical sound field locations and finally the sound pressure contributions of the individual patches are quantified. These techniques are not unique to engine application, but very relevant for engine development. An example is shown for an engine under artificial excitation.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Cooling Thermal Management System on a Dual Voltage 42V-14V Minivan

2001-05-14
2001-01-1742
Today the worldwide convergence towards stricter fuel consumption and emission regulations is pushing carmakers and suppliers into new fields of innovation. Valeo Engine Cooling, VEC, is contributing towards these goals by applying its thermal management system expertise in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions by using an advanced engine cooling system that incorporated variable speed PWM fans, an electric water pump and an electric water control valve. The paper discusses the benefits in terms of engine cooling, fuel economy and emissions over the FTP drive cycle. The paper gives some examples of advanced engine cooling strategies based on a virtual, predictive metal temperature sensor that is used to actuate the electrical water pump at the desired flow rate. The electrical balance between the 42V pump and fans has also been optimized to reduce the vehicle electrical power consumption and to keep the coolant temperature close to 110°C.
Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Oil on Regulated Emissions of a Light-Duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1901
The Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) has identified the compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engine as a promising technology in meeting the PNGV goal of 80 miles per gallon for a prototype mid-size sedan by 2004. Challenges remain in reducing the emission levels of the CIDI-engine to meet future emission standards. The objective of this project was to perform an initial screening of crank case lubricant contribution to regulated engine-out emissions, particularly when low particulate forming diesel fuel formulations are used. The test engine was the Mercedes-Benz OM611, the test oils were a mineral SAE 5W30, a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 5W30, and a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 15W50, and the test fuels were a California-like certification fuel and an alternative oxygenated diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Transient and Steady-State Measurement of Oil Consumption for Several Production SI-Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-1902
Real-time transient and steady-state oil consumption were measured on three SI-engines, applying two different ring-packs to each engine. Testing of multiple engines enables an assessment of the engine-to-engine variability in oil consumption. Testing of multiple ring-packs on each engine enables an assessment of the ring-pack-to-ring-pack variability in oil consumption. The oil consumption was measured by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) novel developed SO2-tracer technique, referred to as RTOC-III. An interesting finding is that the testing shows low engine-to-engine and ring-pack-to-ring-pack variability, in both steady-state, as well as in transient oil consumption. This suggests that the RTOC-III system did not introduce significant variability to the data. The testing results are experimental verification of a design and simulation exercise, in a field of scarcely published literature.
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