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Technical Paper

Sunroof Buffeting Suppression Using a Dividing Bar

2007-04-16
2007-01-1552
This paper presents the results of CFD study on sunroof buffeting suppression using a dividing bar. The role of a dividing bar in side window buffeting case was illustrated in a previous study [8]. For the baseline model of the selected vehicle in this study, a very high level of sunroof buffeting, 133dB, has been found. The CFD simulation shows that the buffeting noise can be significantly reduced if a dividing bar is installed at the sunroof. A further optimization study on the dividing bar demonstrates that the peak buffeting level can be reduced to 123dB for the selected vehicle if the dividing bar is installed at its optimal location, 65% of the total length from the front edge of the sunroof. The peak buffeting level can be further reduced to 100dB if the dividing bar takes its optimal width 80mm, 15% of the total length of the sunroof for this vehicle, while staying at its optimal location.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Indoor Vehicle Thermal Soak Tests to Outdoor Tests

2004-03-08
2004-01-1376
Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted outdoor vehicle thermal soak tests in Golden, Colorado, in September 2002. The same environmental conditions and vehicle were then tested indoors in two DaimlerChrysler test cells, one with metal halide lamps and one with infrared lamps. Results show that the vehicle's shaded interior temperatures correlated well with the outdoor data, while temperatures in the direct sun did not. The large lamp array situated over the vehicle caused the roof to be significantly hotter indoors. Yet, inside the vehicle, the instrument panel was cooler due to the geometry of the lamp array and the spectral difference between the lamps and sun. Results indicate that solar lamps effectively heat the cabin interior in indoor vehicle soak tests for climate control evaluation and SCO3 emissions tests. However, such lamps do not effectively assess vehicle skin temperatures and glazing temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Improving Transfer Gear Noise in Front Wheel Drive Transmissions

2005-05-16
2005-01-2451
Pure tone whine noises produced by transmission gear meshing can be a particular annoyance to vehicle occupants. In this case the gear meshing was exciting a resonance within the transaxle, resulting in an especially obtrusive pure tone noise within a narrow speed range. This report presents the identification of the resonating component and the development of a novel approach to eliminate the noise problem. Specifically a laminated steel (MPM) disk was fastened to the face of the gear to provide damping. Knowledge of the gear's mode of vibration was used to optimize the effectiveness of the damping treatment. This approach is proven to be effective via experimentally verified prototypes
Technical Paper

PGM Optimization by Robust Design

2005-10-24
2005-01-3849
A Robust Engineering experiment was performed to determine the effects PGM loading and placement on the FTP emissions of a 4 cylinder 2.4L and two 8 cylinder 4.7L vehicles. 1.3L catalytic converters were used containing a front and rear catalyst of equal volume. The experiment is defined by a Taguchi L-8 array. Eight different combinations of catalyst PGM loadings were aged and evaluated. Results show that nmHC and NOx emissions are predominately affected by the PGM loading of the front catalyst. The rear catalyst is insensitive to either Pt or Pd which can be used at low concentrations. Results also compare the benefits of Pd and Rh to reduce emissions. Confirmation runs suggest that significant reductions in PGM cost can be achieved over baseline designs.
Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Exhaust Flow Measurement Calibration Device

2004-03-08
2004-01-1436
Vehicle exhaust flow is difficult to measure accurately and with high precision due to the highly transient nature of the cyclic events which are dependent on engine combustion parameters, varying exhaust gas compositions, pulsation effects, temperature and pressure. Bag mini-diluter (BMD) is becoming one of the few technologies chosen for SULEV and PZEV exhaust emission measurement and certification. A central part of the BMD system is an accurate and reliable exhaust flow measurement which is essential for proportional bag fill. A new device has been developed to accurately and reliably calibrate exhaust flow measurement equipments such as the E-Flow. The calibration device uses two different size laminar flow elements (LFE), a 40 CFM (1.13 m3/min) LFE for low end calibration and a 400 CFM (11.32 m3/min) LFE for higher flows. A blower is used to push flow through a main flow path, which then divides into two flow pathways, one for each of the two LFE's.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Frequency Drops in Resonant Bending Fatigue Tests of Notched Crankshaft Sections

2004-03-08
2004-01-1501
Resonant frequencies of a resonant bending system with notched crankshaft sections are obtained experimentally and numerically in order to investigate the effect of notch depth on the drop of the resonant frequency of the system. Notches with the depths ranging from 1 to 5 mm, machined by an EDM (Electrical-Discharging Machining) system, were introduced in crankshaft sections at the fillet between the main crank pin and crank cheek. The resonant frequencies of the resonant bending system with the crankshaft sections with various notch depths were first obtained from the experiments. Three-dimensional finite element models of the resonant bending system with the crankshafts sections with various notch depths are then generated. The resonant frequencies based on the finite element computations are in good agreement with those based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Concepts: Part 2

2006-04-03
2006-01-0032
The development of diesel powered passenger cars is driven by the enhanced emission legislation. To fulfill the future emission limits there is a need for advanced aftertreatment devices. A comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the improvement of the DOC as one part of these systems, concerning high HC/CO conversion rates, low temperature light-off behaviour and high temperature aging stability, respectively. The first part of this study was published in [1]. Further evaluations using a high temperature DPF aging were carried out for the introduced systems. Again the substrate geometry and the catalytic coating were varied. The results from engine as well as vehicle tests show advantages in a highly systematic context by changing either geometrical or chemical factors. These results enable further improvement for the design of the exhaust system to pass the demanding emission legislation for high performance diesel powered passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Optimization Study for Sunroof Buffeting Reduction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0138
This paper presents the results of optimization study for sunroof buffeting reduction using CFD technology. For an early prototype vehicle as a baseline model in this study a high level of sunroof buffeting 133dB has been found. The CFD simulation shows that the buffeting noise can be reduced by installing a wind deflector at its optimal angle 40 degrees from the upward vertical line. Further optimization study demonstrates that the buffeting peak SPL can be reduced to 97dB if the sunroof glass moves to its optimal position, 50% of the total length of the sunroof from the front edge. For any other vehicles, the optimization procedure is the same to get the optimal parameters. On the other hand, however, this optimization study is only based on fluid dynamics principle without considering manufacturability, styling, cost, etc. Further work is needed to utilize the results in the production design.
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-1051
The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

Combustion Pressure Based Engine Management System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0928
Future emission regulations and customer needs require revolutionary new approaches to engine management systems. In the EC part-funded AENEAS program the partners Ricardo, Kistler and DaimlerChrysler formed a consortium to investigate the application of a new combustion pressure sensor concept and innovative algorithms for engine management systems. This paper describes the general scope and the basic concepts of the system.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Cooling Thermal Management System on a Dual Voltage 42V-14V Minivan

2001-05-14
2001-01-1742
Today the worldwide convergence towards stricter fuel consumption and emission regulations is pushing carmakers and suppliers into new fields of innovation. Valeo Engine Cooling, VEC, is contributing towards these goals by applying its thermal management system expertise in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions by using an advanced engine cooling system that incorporated variable speed PWM fans, an electric water pump and an electric water control valve. The paper discusses the benefits in terms of engine cooling, fuel economy and emissions over the FTP drive cycle. The paper gives some examples of advanced engine cooling strategies based on a virtual, predictive metal temperature sensor that is used to actuate the electrical water pump at the desired flow rate. The electrical balance between the 42V pump and fans has also been optimized to reduce the vehicle electrical power consumption and to keep the coolant temperature close to 110°C.
Technical Paper

Engine Internal Dynamic Force Identification and the Combination with Engine Structural and Vibro-Acoustic Transfer Information

2001-04-30
2001-01-1596
The vibration-generating mechanisms inside an engine are highly non-linear (combustion, valve operation, hydraulic bearing behavior, etc.). However, the engine structure, under the influence of these vibration-generating mechanisms, responds in a highly linear way. For the development and optimization of the engine structure for noise and vibration it is beneficial to use fast and ‘simple’ linear models, like linear FE-models, measured modal models or measured FRF-models. All these models allow a qualitative assessment of variants without excitation information. But, for true optimization, internal excitation spectra are needed in order to avoid that effort is spent to optimize non-critical system properties. Unfortunately, these internal excitation spectra are difficult to measure. Direct measurement of combustion pressure is still feasible, but crank-bearing forces, piston guidance forces etc. can only be identified indirectly.
Technical Paper

Development of an Air Intake System Using Vibro-Acoustics Numerical Modeling

2001-04-30
2001-01-1519
This paper describes the use of Vibro-Acoustics numerical modeling for prediction of an Air Intake System noise level for a commercial vehicle. The use of numerical methods to predict vehicle interior noise levels as well as sound radiated from components is gaining acceptance in the automotive industry [1]. The products of most industries can benefit from improved acoustic design. On the other hand, sound emission regulation has become more and more rigorous and customers expect quieter products. The aim of this work it is to assess the Vibro-Acoustics behavior of Air Intake System and influence of it in the sound pressure level of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Empirical Noise Model for Power Train Noise in a Passenger Vehicle

1999-05-17
1999-01-1757
Power train noise reaches the interior through structureborne paths and through airborne transmission of engine casing noise. To determine transfer functions from vibration to interior noise a shaker was attached at the engine attachment points, with the engine removed. A simple engine noise simulator, with loudspeaker cones on its faces, was placed in the engine compartment to measure airborne transfer functions to interior noise. Empirical noise estimates, based on the incoherent sum of contributions for individual source terms times the appropriate transfer function, compared remarkably well with measured levels obtained from dynomometer tests. Airborne transmission dominates above 1.5kHz. At lower frequencies engine casing radiation and vibration contributions are comparable.
Technical Paper

The Application of Variable Event Valve Timing to a Modern Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1229
DaimlerChrysler and Mechadyne have undertaken a piece of work to investigate the opportunities for improving the operation of light duty diesel engines using variable valve timing. The very high compression ratios used in this type of engine make it essential to be able to alter the valve open periods to affect exhaust valve opening and intake valve closing, whilst leaving the valve motions largely unchanged around overlap top dead centre to avoid valve to piston contact. This paper presents an overview of the design solution, a description of the simulation model used, performance and economy data predicted by the model and a discussion of other areas of opportunity where improvements may be possible.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Combustion Model for Heat Release Rate Prediction in High-Speed DI Diesel Engines with Common Rail Injection

2000-10-16
2000-01-2933
This paper presents a phenomenological single-zone combustion model which meets the particular requirements of high speed DI diesel engines with common rail injection. Therefore the model takes into account the freely selectable pilot and main injection and is strongly focusing on result parameters like combustion noise or NO-emission which are affected by this split injection. The premixed combustion, the mixing-controlled combustion and the ignition delay are key parts of the model. The model was developed and tested on more than 200 samples from three different engine types of DaimlerChrysler passenger car engines equipped with common rail injection. A user-friendly parameterization and a short computing time was achieved thanks to the simple structure of the model.
Technical Paper

Digital Filtering for J211 Requirements using a Fast Fourier Transform Based Filter

2002-03-04
2002-01-0796
The need for low pass filters stems from a need to eliminate high frequency noise from raw data (the output of the data acquisition system). As an example, consider the frame of a vehicle used in a crash test. The frame will exhibit high frequency vibrations, which do not affect the vehicles movement in space. The use of filters has since been expanded to include such things as the calculation of potential injury. Phaseless filters are now required for all FMVSS-208 injury calculations (see references). A single filter formula can not allow all test facilities to comply with the J211 CFC corridors. Even the SAE J211 recommended Butterworth filter may not comply with the J211 requirements. A new, universal, filtering system is required to harmonize the data processing at all testing facilities. The use of Fourier series for filtering provides a very powerful, yet overlooked, solution to today's filtering problems.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Large Hydraulic Hose Deflections

2002-10-06
2002-01-2589
A modeling methodology is being developed to aid in routing and predicting movement of brake hoses with the objective of having an adequate representation in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) system for virtual prototyping. Once mount points and orientations have been specified,material properties and length determine the path of the hose. Data, collected on a straight and deflected hose at several points along the length of the hose, were compared to an ADAMS simulation. Problems that were encountered in metrology and data transfer are discussed along with their potential impact on the modeling accuracy.
Technical Paper

Cooling Fan Modeling to Support Robust AC/Cooling System Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1905
Advanced design of modern engine cooling and vehicle HVAC components involves sophisticated simulation. In particular, front end air flow models must be able to cover the complete range of conditions from idle to high road speeds involving multiple fans of varying types both powered and unpowered. This paper presents a model for electric radiator cooling fans which covers the complete range of powered and unpowered (freewheel) operation. The model applies equally well to mechanical drive fans.
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