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Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of the Flow Over Convertibles

In the present study, the exterior air flow over convertibles together with the interior flow in the passenger compartment has been calculated using the commercial CFD program STAR-CD. The investigations have been performed for a SLK-class Mercedes with two occupants. The computational mesh consists of about 3 million hexahedra cells. The detailed informations of the calculated flow field have been used to elaborate the characteristic flow phenomena and increase the physical understanding of the flow. The influence of different geometrical modifications (variations of roof spoiler, variations of the draft stop behind the seats etc.) on the flow field and the air draft experienced by the occupants has been analyzed. To proof the accuracy of the numerical results, wind tunnel experiments in a full scale and 1:5 scale wind tunnel have been carried out for the basic car model as well as for several geometrical variations.
Technical Paper

A Method to Reduce the Calculation Time for an Internal Combustion Engine Model

Coming along with the present movement towards the ultimately variable engine, the need for clear and simple models for complex engine systems is rapidly increasing. In this context Common-Rail-Systems cause a special kind of problem due to of the high amount of parameters which cannot be taken into consideration with simple map-based models. For this reason models with a higher amount of complexity are necessary to realize a representative behavior of the simulation. The high computational time of the simulation, which is caused by the increased complexity, makes it nearly impossible to implement this type of model in software in closed loop applications or simulations for control purposes. In this paper a method for decreasing the complexity and accelerating the computing time of automotive engine models is being evaluated which uses an optimized method for each stage of the diesel engine process.
Technical Paper

Evolution-Strategy Based, Fully Automatic, Numerical Optimization of Gas-Exchange Systems for IC Engines

Today, a number of simulation codes are available for pre-designing gas exchange systems of IC engines with good accuracy (e.g. PROMO, WAVE, GT-Power). However, optimizing such systems still requires numerous time consuming and inefficient trial and error runs. Also, accounting for constraints as size, volume, peak combustion pressure etc. multiplies the necessary efforts additionally. Hence there is a strong need for efficient procedures for finding optimum designs automatically and reliably. To automatically find the global optimum design parameters under a given set of real constraints of a practical case, a multi-membered evolution-strategy based optimization code was developed. The code which efficiently finds the true optimum dimensions of gas exchange systems (duct lengths, duct diameters, volumes) of an IC engine. The code can be readily generalized, and adapted to arbitrary optimization problems.
Technical Paper

A New Calibration System for the Daimler Chrysler Medium and Heavy Duty Diesel Engines - An Exercise in Methods & Tools

High demands in fuel consumption, efficiency, and low emissions lead to complex control functions for current and future diesel engine management systems. Great effort is necessary for their optimal calibration. At the same time, and particularly for cost reasons, many variants exist on one individual type of diesel engine management system. Not only is it used for several base engines, but these engines are also used in different environments and for different tasks. For optimal deployment, their calibration status must also be optimized individually. Furthermore, the demand for shorter development cycles and enhanced quality lead to a catalogue of new requirements for the calibration process and the affiliated tool. A new calibration system was developed, which optimally reflects the new demands.
Technical Paper

Functional Integration of E/E Systems

The complexity of electrical/electronic vehicle systems mandates a systematic approach to the development of vehicle control, infotainment or comfort functions as well as the integration of these functions in an in-vehicle network consisting of several dedicated bus systems and according gateways. Due to reduced time-to-market, the integration has to be performed in a virtual environment. The classical Digital Mockup (DMU) addresses the physical integration of EE systems as mechanical components. However, functional aspects play a dominant role in EE vehicle systems. For this reason, functional integration defines a multi-view, mixed-level approach to the description, transformation, verification and integration of vehicle functions under consideration of the physical vehicle integration.
Technical Paper

Powernet Simulation as a Tool for the Development of a Highly Reliable Energy Supply for Safety Relevant Control Systems in X-By-Wire Vessels in the EU SPARC Project

The EU SPARC Project (Secure Propelled Vehicle with Advanced Redundant Control) has developed a new system architecture that enables effective application of driver assisted systems in an X-by-wire powertrain. A major challenge in the conception of such a system is development of a reliable electrical energy supply. A simulation is the most important tool for enabling the fundamental aspects to work, as for example, a dimensioning of the powernet. This article explains our approach in this SPARC simulation. We provide suggestions through examples of how to find simulation solutions for powernet dimensioning, as well as for the conception and validation of energy management strategies.
Technical Paper

A Holistic Hydraulic and Spray Model – Liquid and Vapor Phase Penetration of Fuel Sprays in DI Diesel Engines

For studying the effects of injection system properties and combustion chamber conditions on the penetration lengths of both the liquid and the vapor phase of fuel injectors in Diesel engines, a holistic injection model was developed, combining hydraulic and spray modeling into one integrated simulation tool. The hydraulic system is modeled by using ISIS (Interactive Simulation of Interdisciplinary Systems), a one dimensional in–house code simulating the fuel flow through hydraulic systems. The computed outflow conditions at the nozzle exit, e.g. the dynamic flow rate and the corresponding fuel pressure, are used to link the hydraulic model to a quasi–dimensional spray model. The quasi–dimensional spray model uses semi–empirical 1D correlation functions to calculate spray angle, droplet history and droplet motion as well as penetration lengths of the liquid and the vapor phases. For incorporating droplet vaporization, a single droplet approach has been used.
Technical Paper

The Impact of High Cell Density Ceramic Substrates and Washcoat Properties on the Catalytic Activity of Three Way Catalysts

The present paper describes the results of a joint development program focussing on a system approach to meet the EURO IV emission standards for an upper class passenger car equipped with a newly developed high displacement gasoline engine. Based on the well known catalyst systems of recent V6- and V8-engines for the EURO III emission standards with a combination of close coupled catalysts and underfloor catalysts, the specific boundary conditions of an engine with an even larger engine displacement had to be considered. These boundary conditions consist of the space requirements in the engine compartment, the power/torque requirements and the cost requirements for the complete aftertreatment system. Theoretical studies and computer modeling showed essential improvements in catalyst performance by introducing thin wall substrates with low thermal inertia as well as high cell densities with increased geometric surface area.
Technical Paper

Evaluation on Analytical Tire Models for Vehicle Vertical Vibration Simulation Using Virtual Tire Testing Method

This paper evaluates several durability tire models using Virtual Tire Testing (VTT) strategy. VTT conducts tire testing (simulation) using LS–DYNA based on a Virtual Tire which is built by 3–D finite element mesh. VTT is repeatable and could do special tire tests which can't be done using normal tire testing bench. A brief review is given on durability tire models and several typical tire models are selected for this study. All the necessary parameters for establishing the analytical tire models are extracted from the Virtual Tire. Quarter vehicle model is used to simulate the vehicle vertical vibration. The comments of those analytical tire models are given based on their performance vs. VTT.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the Influence of Air Vent Area and Air Mass Flux on the Thermal Comfort of Car Occupants

In the present paper, first results of an extensive and ongoing parametric study are shown. The objective of the parametric study is to clarify the influence of relevant flow and geometrical parameters on the microclimate and thermal comfort of the occupants. Flow parameters included in the study are air mass fluxes, velocity magnitude, air temperature and inflow direction at the vents. Geometrical parameters of interest are number, location, area and shape of the air vents as well as geometrical details of the passenger compartment itself. The parametric study is performed numerically on the basis of a computational model for a passenger compartment of a Mercedes E-Class sedan. The numerical method used has been published earlier and consists of a system of three programs for simulating the flow and temperature field in the cabin, the heat transfer and radiation and the thermal sensation of the occupants.
Technical Paper

Active Safety of Commercial Vehicles - The European Status

The increase of active safety will demand more and more electronic intelligence, if a drastic optimization of conventional systems is not possible any more. Starting from today's mechatronic systems, the trend leads via tomorrow's smart electronic systems to the future electronic networking of all intelligent vehicle systems. The paper describes the present status of these systems in Europe and the possibilities of increasing the active safety by using electronic intelligence.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of NO/NO2/NH3 Reactions on SCR-Catalytic Converters:Model Development and Applications

A 1D+1D numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR process of NO and NO2 on vanadia-titania catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. Basing on a fundamental investigation of the catalytic processes a reaction mechanism for the NO/NO2 - NH3 reacting system is proposed and modeled. After the parameterization of the reaction mechanism the reaction kinetics have been coupled with models for heat and mass transport. Model validation has been performed with engine test bench experiments. Finally the model has been applied to study the influence of NO2 on SCR efficiency within ETC and ESC testcycles, Additional simulations have been conducted to identify the potential for catalyst volume reduction if NO2 is present in the inlet feed.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Rotating Wheels on Vehicle Aerodynamics - Numerical and Experimental Investigations

Investigations of the aerodynamic influence of rotating wheels on a simplified vehicle model as well as on a series production car are presented. For this research CFD simulations are used together with wind tunnel measurements like LDV and aerodynamic forces. Several wheel rim geometries are examined in stationary and in rotating condition. A good agreement could be achieved between CFD simulations and wind tunnel measurements. Based on the CFD analysis the major aerodynamic mechanisms at rotating wheels are characterized. The flow topology around the wheels in a wheel arch is revealed. It is shown, that the reduction of drag and lift caused by the wheel rotation on the isolated wheel and the wheel in the wheel arch are based on different effects of the airflow. Though the forces decrease at the front wheel due to the wheel rotation locally, the major change in drag and lift happens directly on the automotive body itself.
Technical Paper

Simulation Of NOx Storage and Reduction Catalyst: Model Development And Application

To fulfill future emission standards for diesel engines, combined after-treatment systems consisting of different catalyst technologies and diesel particulate filters (DPF) are necessary. For designing and optimizing the resulting systems of considerable complexity, effective simulation models of different catalyst and DPF technologies have been developed and integrated into a common simulation environment called ExACT (Exhaust After-treatment Components Toolbox). This publication focuses on a model for the NOx storage and reduction catalyst as a part of that simulation environment. A heterogeneous, spatially one-dimensional (1D), physically and chemically based mathematical model of the catalytic monolith has been developed. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe reaction conversions on the washcoat. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments.
Technical Paper

3D-CFD Simulation of DI-Diesel Combustion Applying a Progress Variable Approach Accounting for Detailed Chemistry

A chemical sub-model for realistic CFD simulations of Diesel engines is developed and demonstrated by application to some test cases. The model uses a newly developed progress variable approach to incorporate a realistic treatment of chemical reactions into the description of the reactive flow. The progress variable model is based on defining variables that represent the onset and temporal development of chemical reactions before and during self ignition, as well as the stage of the actual combustion. Fundamental aspects of the model, especially its physical motivation and finding a proper progress variable, are discussed, as well as issues of practical implementation. Sample calculations of Diesel-typical combustion scenarios are presented which are based on the progress-variable model, showing the capability of the model to realistically describe the ignition-and combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Validation of Eulerian Spray Concept coupled with CFD Combustion Analysis

The main objective of engine 3D CFD simulation is nowadays the support for combustion design development. New combustion concepts (e.g. Low Temperature Combustion, HCCI, multiple injection strategies …) could be analyzed and predicted through detailed thermodynamical computation. To achieve this aim many simulation tools are needed: each of them has to be capable to reproduce the sensitivities of combustion design parameters through physically based models. The adopted approach consists of the coupling of different models for 3D-nozzle flow, orifice-resolved spray formation in Eulerian coordinates and combustion. The advantages of the method will be proofed on an operative DI-diesel truck engine case, run with different nozzle geometries.
Technical Paper

The Integration of Cad/Cam/Cae Based on Multi-Model Technology in the Development of Cylinder Head

The integration of CAD/CAM/CAE in product development is the key to realize concurrent engineering. Generally, different systems are employed in product development department. These different systems create a lot of troubles such as difficult communication, misunderstanding and so on. A new approach to integrate CAD/CAM/CAE in one system based on CATIA for the end-to-end process in cylinder head development is presented. Multi-Model Technology (MMT) is used to create consistent and associated CAD models for the end-to-end process in cylinder head development. The concept and method to create and organize multi- models are discussed. A typically four-layer structure of MMT for mechanical products is defined. The multi-level structure of the cylinder head models based on MMT is provided. The CAD models of cylinder head created based on MMT can be used as the consistent model.
Technical Paper

DaimlerChrysler's New 1.6L, Multi-Valve 4-Cylinder Engine Series

This paper introduces the new 1.6L engine family, designed and developed by the Chrysler group of DaimlerChrysler Corporation in cooperation with BMW. An overview of the engine's design features is provided, with a detailed review of the performance development process with emphasis on airflow, combustion, thermal management and friction. This information is presented, to provide an understanding of how the engine simultaneously achieves outstanding levels of torque, power, fuel consumption, emissions and idle stability. The use of analytical tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in the optimization of the engine is shown.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA 3D Interface Component Analysis to Predict FMVSS 208 Occupant Responses

Today's interior systems engineer has been challenged with providing cost-effective instrument panel design solutions to meet NHTSA's new FMVSS 208 front crash regulations. Automotive manufacturers are in continuous search of newer methods and techniques to reduce prototype tests and cost. Analytical methods of predicting occupant and structural behavior using computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis has been in place for quite some time. With the new FMVSS 208 regulations requiring both 5th and 50th percentile occupant testing, CAE analysis of predicting occupant response has become increasingly important. The CAE analyst is challenged with representing the barrier test condition, which involves the structure and the occupant moving at velocities of 25, 30 and 35 mph. Representing the cab kinematics in high-speed impacts is crucial, since capturing the vehicle intrusion and pitching should be made part of the input variables.
Technical Paper

Bionic Optimization of Air-Guiding Systems

Topology optimization in structural analysis is known for many years. In the presented procedure, “topology optimization” is used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the first time. It offers the possibility of a very fast optimization process under utilization of the physical information in the flow field instead of using optimization algorithms like for example evolution strategies or gradient based methods. This enables the design engineer to generate in a first layout air guiding systems with low pressure drop in a fast and easy manner, which can than be improved further due to constraints of styling or production requirements. This procedure has been tested with many examples and shows promising results with a reduction in pressure loss up to 60% compared to a duct designed in CAD in the traditional way.