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Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Zeolite- and V-Based SCR Catalytic Converters

A numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR process of NOX on zeolite catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. The development of the reaction kinetics is based on a study which compares the activity of zeolite and vanadium based catalysts. This study was conducted in a microreactor loaded with washcoat powder and with crushed coated monoliths. A model for the SCR reaction kinetics on zeolite catalysts is presented. After the parameterization of the reaction mechanism the reaction kinetics were coupled with models for heat and mass transport. The model is validated with laboratory data and engine test bench measurement data over washcoated monolith catalysts. A numerical simulation study is presented, aiming to reveal the differences between zeolite and vanadium based SCR catalysts.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of NO/NO2/NH3 Reactions on SCR-Catalytic Converters:Model Development and Applications

A 1D+1D numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR process of NO and NO2 on vanadia-titania catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. Basing on a fundamental investigation of the catalytic processes a reaction mechanism for the NO/NO2 - NH3 reacting system is proposed and modeled. After the parameterization of the reaction mechanism the reaction kinetics have been coupled with models for heat and mass transport. Model validation has been performed with engine test bench experiments. Finally the model has been applied to study the influence of NO2 on SCR efficiency within ETC and ESC testcycles, Additional simulations have been conducted to identify the potential for catalyst volume reduction if NO2 is present in the inlet feed.
Technical Paper

The Vision of a Comprehensive Safety Concept

A look at the various past achievements in the field of passenger car safety raises the question whether any dramatic steps towards its improvement can still be expected. Will progress be confined to the optimization of existing systems or does the future hold new substantial safety steps? This paper elaborates on the issue that the time available before a potential accident occurs can be used to improve the safety of occupants and other involved road users. Accident analysis confirms that this is feasible for about two-thirds of all accidents. The recognition of an imminent collision bears a noteworthy potential for accident prevention, reduction of accident severity and injury severity. The former boundary between active and passive safety thus fades continually. Based upon this it is possible to describe vehicle safety by a comprehensive approach encompassing seven escalation levels.
Technical Paper

Collaborative Product Creation Driving the MOST Cooperation

The following document offers insight into the work of the MOST Cooperation. Now that MOST is on the road, a short overview of five years of successful collaborative work of the partners involved and the results achieved will be given. Emphasis is put on the importance of a shared vision in combination with shared values as a prerequisite for targeted collaborative work. It is also about additional key success factors that led to the success of the MOST Cooperation. Your attention will be directed to the way the MOST Cooperation sets and achieves its goals. And you will learn about how the organization was set-up to support a fast progression towards the common goal. The document concludes with examples of recent work as well as an outlook on future work.
Technical Paper

Ridemeter – Calculated Ride Comfort

The ridemeter is a development tool that provides a predictive value for subjectively perceived ride quality on the basis of objective measured values. After years of preliminary investigations it was possible to make the link between the subjective driving experience and objective measured data. Intensive validation of the tool known as the ridemeter enables it to obtain meaningful results, which meet with a high degree of acceptance from the development engineer. The ridemeter is capable of providing calculated assessments for different vehicle concepts on different roads. The ridemeter is used on general road tests, on test runs on the AUDI proving ground, on our test rigs and in simulation. Areas of application include benchmark investigations, optimisation steps for suspension components and systems, and the setting out of limit values and tolerance curves in specifications for future vehicles.
Technical Paper

Functional Integration of E/E Systems

The complexity of electrical/electronic vehicle systems mandates a systematic approach to the development of vehicle control, infotainment or comfort functions as well as the integration of these functions in an in-vehicle network consisting of several dedicated bus systems and according gateways. Due to reduced time-to-market, the integration has to be performed in a virtual environment. The classical Digital Mockup (DMU) addresses the physical integration of EE systems as mechanical components. However, functional aspects play a dominant role in EE vehicle systems. For this reason, functional integration defines a multi-view, mixed-level approach to the description, transformation, verification and integration of vehicle functions under consideration of the physical vehicle integration.
Journal Article

Adapted Development Process for Security in Networked Automotive Systems

Future automotive systems will be connected with other vehicles and information systems for improved road safety, mobility and comfort. This new connectivity establishes data and command channels between the internal automotive system and arbitrary external entities. One significant issue of this paradigm shift is that formerly closed automotive systems now become open systems that can be maliciously influenced through their communication interfaces. This introduces a new class of security challenges for automotive design. It also indirectly impacts the safety mechanisms that rely on a closed-world assumption for the vehicle. We present a new security analysis approach that helps to identify and prioritize security issues in automotive architectures. The methodology incorporates a new threat classification for data flows in connected vehicle systems.
Journal Article

Development of a Full-Vehicle Hybrid-Simulation Test using Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC)

Hybrid vehicle simulation methods combine physical test articles (vehicles, suspensions, etc.) with complementary virtual vehicle components and virtual road and driver inputs to simulate the actual vehicle operating environment. Using appropriate components, hybrid simulation offers the possibility to develop more accurate physical tests earlier, and at lower cost, than possible with conventional test methods. MTS Systems has developed Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC), a hybrid simulation method that can utilize existing durability test systems and detailed non-real-time virtual component models to create an accurate full-vehicle simulation test without requiring road load data acquisition. MTS Systems and Audi AG have recently completed a joint evaluation project for the HSRC hybrid simulation method using an MTS 329 road simulator at the Audi facility in Ingolstadt, Germany.