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Technical Paper

The Influence of Rotating Wheels on Vehicle Aerodynamics - Numerical and Experimental Investigations

Investigations of the aerodynamic influence of rotating wheels on a simplified vehicle model as well as on a series production car are presented. For this research CFD simulations are used together with wind tunnel measurements like LDV and aerodynamic forces. Several wheel rim geometries are examined in stationary and in rotating condition. A good agreement could be achieved between CFD simulations and wind tunnel measurements. Based on the CFD analysis the major aerodynamic mechanisms at rotating wheels are characterized. The flow topology around the wheels in a wheel arch is revealed. It is shown, that the reduction of drag and lift caused by the wheel rotation on the isolated wheel and the wheel in the wheel arch are based on different effects of the airflow. Though the forces decrease at the front wheel due to the wheel rotation locally, the major change in drag and lift happens directly on the automotive body itself.
Technical Paper

Future Power Plants For Cars

Environmental concern demands that emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles have to improve considerably in the next 10 years. New technologies for gasoline engines, downsizing with high boosting, direct injection and fully variable valve train systems, are being developed. For Diesel engines, improved components including piezobased injectors and particle filters are expected. In the drive train new starter-generator systems as well as automated manual transmissions are being developed. In parallel alternative fuels are investigated and the use of hybrid drives and fuel cells are developed. This paper reports the progress made in the recent years and gives a comparative assessment on the different technologies with a prediction of the introduction dates and volumes into the market.
Technical Paper

Validation of Eulerian Spray Concept coupled with CFD Combustion Analysis

The main objective of engine 3D CFD simulation is nowadays the support for combustion design development. New combustion concepts (e.g. Low Temperature Combustion, HCCI, multiple injection strategies …) could be analyzed and predicted through detailed thermodynamical computation. To achieve this aim many simulation tools are needed: each of them has to be capable to reproduce the sensitivities of combustion design parameters through physically based models. The adopted approach consists of the coupling of different models for 3D-nozzle flow, orifice-resolved spray formation in Eulerian coordinates and combustion. The advantages of the method will be proofed on an operative DI-diesel truck engine case, run with different nozzle geometries.
Technical Paper

Simulation Of NOx Storage and Reduction Catalyst: Model Development And Application

To fulfill future emission standards for diesel engines, combined after-treatment systems consisting of different catalyst technologies and diesel particulate filters (DPF) are necessary. For designing and optimizing the resulting systems of considerable complexity, effective simulation models of different catalyst and DPF technologies have been developed and integrated into a common simulation environment called ExACT (Exhaust After-treatment Components Toolbox). This publication focuses on a model for the NOx storage and reduction catalyst as a part of that simulation environment. A heterogeneous, spatially one-dimensional (1D), physically and chemically based mathematical model of the catalytic monolith has been developed. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe reaction conversions on the washcoat. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Numerical Simulation Strategy Designed to Support the Early Stages of the Aerodynamic Development Process

In order to fulfill the need for an efficient and reliable computational method for the aerodynamic optimization of passenger cars, a numerical simulation strategy has been developed at DaimlerChrysler in Stuttgart. The simulation strategy consists of surface preparation, three dimensional mesh generation, flow simulation using CFD, and post-processing. The method will be applied mainly in the early concept phase of the development process when 1:4 scale models with smooth underbodies are used. In this study SAE-bodies as well as modifications of real car shapes are presented. The paper also discusses which improvements are needed to establish a mainly CFD-based process in the early concept phase.
Technical Paper

New CNG Concepts for Passenger Cars: High Torque Engines with Superior Fuel Consumption

Since the CO2 emissions of passenger car traffic and their greenhouse potential are in the public interest, natural gas (CNG) is discussed as an attractive alternative fuel. The engine concepts that have been applied to date are mainly based upon common gasoline engine technology. In addition, in mono-fuel applications, it is made use of an increased compression ratio -thanks to the RON (Research Octane Number) potential of CNG-, which allows for thermodynamic benefits. This paper presents advanced engine concepts that make further use of the potentials linked to CNG. Above all, the improved knock tolerance, which can be particularly utilized in turbocharged engine concepts. For bi-fuel (CNG/gasoline) power trains, the realization of variable compression ratio is of special interest. Moreover, lean burn technology is a perfect match for CNG engines. Fuel economy and emission level are evaluated basing on test bench and vehicle investigations.
Technical Paper

Active Body Control (ABC) The DaimlerChrysler Active Suspension and Damping System

Suspension systems have a major effect on the handling characteristics of a vehicle, particularly ride comfort and handling safety, and thus substantially determine its character. Their increasing significance is reflected by the greater value that ever more demanding customers attribute to the properties ride comfort and handling safety. Now that the potential of conventional, passive systems is largely exhausted, adaptive and active systems open up new possibilities, e.g.: the suppression of rolling and pitching movements, handling and ride height independent of load, handling characteristics and ride height adaptable to situation and customer requirement. The DaimlerChrysler active suspension and damping system (Active Body Control – ABC) manages to resolve the conflict of aims between handling safety and ride comfort which afflicts conventional fixed suspension systems, and as a result offers greater freedom of layout whilst enabling optimization of both target criteria.
Technical Paper

Impact of Future Fuels

The likely transition from today's conventional to future alternative fuels will be discussed. It will be shown that in the very long term renewable fuels might be the most promising road fuels with respect to low CO2 emissions. In the short and medium term, however, liquid alternative fuels will prevail being produced initially from natural gas and later increasingly from biomass. Methanol, Ethanol, GTL Hydrocarbons and other fuels are still under study since lowest WTW CO2 emissions and overall system costs are not yet clarified. The availability of alternative fuels in large quantities will depend on the costs for production and infra-structure, and not least of all, on the market benefits of the resulting fuel / power train systems in a holistic assessment. Cost trends for conventional and alternative fuels will be discussed.
Technical Paper

The Impact of new Technologies and Tools on the Vehicle and Engine Development Process

Technological progress opens the door for the development of new tools to be used for the development of vehicles and engines. This offers the opportunity for an optimization of the entire workflow on one hand, and an improvement of single tasks on the other hand. This paper describes the actual status of the development process, describes new directions of tool evolvement and finally gives an outlook into the future. Redline ADAPT-SIM is a tool for driver- and vehicle simulation, which was developed primarily for ECU application, but can also be used for other dynamic testing tasks. The introduction of this tool leads to better controllability and therefore also repeatability of tests.
Technical Paper

“MBE 4000-A New Engine for the US Class 8 Truck Market”

Due to ever soaring fuel costs and even more stringent emission regulations which require more elaborate technical efforts and unfortunately lead to a negative trend on fuel economy as well, todays and future trucking business is extremely challenged. These facts create an urgent requirement for the engine manufacturer to offer an engine with an optimized cost-benefit-ratio for the trucking business. Mercedes-Benz, as the leader in the European commercial vehicle market - of which e. g. high fuel costs, long maintenance intervals and high engine power-to-weight ratios have always been key characteristics - has developed a new class 8 engine for the US market. The MBE 4000 is a 6 cylinder inline engine in the compact size and low weight category, but due to its displacement of 12,8 liters it offers high performance characteristics like heavier big block engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Natural Gas Engine with Common-Rail Micro-Pilot Injection

In the recent years, it has become obvious that one of the main fields of interest in alternate fuels is the public transportation sector. Natural Gas seems to be advantageous. It is available and environmentally friendly, even if the greenhouse effect of methane is considered. The operation range of vehicles running on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is poor due to the large pressure vessels, but in case of urban buses with low daily mileage this is acceptable. On the other hand, the use of an environmentally friendly fuel is favorable especially in urban areas. Although there are some advantages of Natural Gas, diesel buses dominate the market. The reason is the better part-load fuel efficiency of the Diesel principle which is superior to the Otto-cycle due to the absence of engine throttling. The efficiency levels of Spark-Ignition (SI) -type, Lean Burn Natural Gas engines are quite comparable to diesel engines during full load conditions.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Braking Management for Commercial Vehicles

The development of electronic intelligence and the continually increasing intensive knowledge of driving dynamics make it possible nowadays to conceive intelligent vehicle systems and to make such systems available for series production, which are capable of substantially enhancing the active safety of commercial vehicles. Through the implementation of advanced subsystems, which can be integrated as software packages into the basic electronic braking system, it will be possible to expand the possibilities of introducing assistance systems, which are capable of both, helping and relieving the driver from stress in critical situations. The driver will be relieved of all duties which could divert his attention or cause severe stress. As a consequence, the active safety of commercial vehicles will be considerably increased.
Technical Paper

Active Safety of Commercial Vehicles - The European Status

The increase of active safety will demand more and more electronic intelligence, if a drastic optimization of conventional systems is not possible any more. Starting from today's mechatronic systems, the trend leads via tomorrow's smart electronic systems to the future electronic networking of all intelligent vehicle systems. The paper describes the present status of these systems in Europe and the possibilities of increasing the active safety by using electronic intelligence.
Technical Paper

Future of Combustion Engines

Increasing shortages of energy resources as well as emission legislation is increasing the pressure to develop more efficient, environmentally friendly propulsion systems for vehicles. Due to its more than 125 years of history with permanent improvements, the internal combustion engine (ICE) has reached a very high development status in terms of efficiency and emissions, but also drivability, handling and comfort. Therefore, the IC engine will be the dominant propulsion system for future generations. This paper gives a survey on the present technical status and future prospects of internal combustion engines, both CI and SI engines, also including alternative fuels. In addition a brief overview of the potential of currently intensely discussed hybrid concepts is given.
Technical Paper

On Road Testing of Advanced Common Rail Diesel Vehicles with Biodiesel from the Jatropha Curcas plant

This paper addresses the use of neat, indigenous biodiesel in advanced Mercedes-Benz passenger cars. Modern, unmodified EU3 Common-Rail diesel engines with second generation common rail technology were used to determine the effects of neat biodiesel on performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel was made from the seeds of the Jatropha Curcas plant and sourced from the Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, India. The production of biodiesel and the vehicle tests are part of a PPP project, funded jointly by the DaimlerChrysler AG and the German DEG. The project aims at providing additional jobs and income in rural Indian areas along with reclaiming unused wasteland. The test vehicles were operated for a cumulative 8000 kilometers with an intention to expose the vehicle and fuel to diverse climatic conditions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Application of a 4-Cylinder Tumble DISI Engine

SI engines with gasoline direct injection are currently the focus of development for almost all car manufacturers. After the introduction of DISI engines, first to the Japanese market and after a short time delay also in Europe, a broad variety of technical solutions for efficient stratified concepts can be stated. The targets of the development activities in this field are defined by legislation and customer's demands. The potential reduction of fuel consumption with stratified operation has to be combined with a further improvement of the full load potential of the DISI engine. A substantial part of the development activities are the fulfillment of current and future emission standards. Therefore, in order to realize a highly efficient lean operation, new technologies and strategies in the field of exhaust gas aftertreatment and vehicle application are required.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance. The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Combustion Delay and -Duration of Homogeneous Charge Gasoline Engines based on In-Cylinder Flow Simulation

In this paper a new approach is presented to evaluate the combustion behaviour of homogeneous gasoline engines by predicting burn delay and -duration in a way which can be obtained under the time constraints of the development process. This is accomplished by means of pure in-cylinder flow simulations without a classical combustion model. The burn delay model is based on the local distribution of the turbulent flow near the spark plug. It features also a methodology to compare different designs regarding combustion stability. The correlation for burn duration uses a turbulent characteristic number that is obtained from the turbulent flow in the combustion chamber together with a model for the turbulent burning velocity. The results show good agreement with the combustion process of the analyzed engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions and Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Increased demand for highly fuel efficient propulsion systems drives the engine development community to develop advanced technologies allowing improving the overall thermal efficiency while maintaining low emission levels. In addition to improving the thermal efficiencies of the internal combustion engine itself the developments of fuels that allow improved combustion as well as lower the emissions footprint has intensified recently. This paper will describe the effects of five different fuel types with significantly differing fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty HSDI diesel engine. The fuels cetane number ranges between 26 and 76. These fuels feature significantly differing boiling characteristics as well as heating values. The fuel selection also contains one pure biodiesel (SME - Soy Methyl Ester). This study was conducted in part load and full load operating points using a state of the art HSDI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Acoustics of Hybrid Vehicles

The technology used in hybrid vehicle concepts is significantly different from conventional vehicle technology with consequences also for the noise and vibration behavior. In conventional vehicles, certain noise phenomena are masked by the engine noise. In situations where the combustion engine is turned off in hybrid vehicle concepts, these noise components can become dominant and annoying. In hybrid concepts, the driving condition is often decoupled from the operation state of the combustion engine, which leads to unusual and unexpected acoustical behavior. New acoustic phenomena such as magnetic noise due to recuperation occur, caused by new components and driving conditions. The analysis of this recuperation noise by means of interior noise simulation shows, that it is not only induced by the powertrain radiation but also by the noise path via the powertrain mounts. The additional degrees of freedom of the hybrid drive train can also be used to improve the vibrational behavior.