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Technical Paper

Lubricant Requirements of an Advanced Designed High Performance, Fuel Efficient Low Emissions V-6 Engine

Modern high power density gasoline fueled engines place an ever-increasing demand on the engine lubricant. In this study, it is shown that advances in engine design to increase performance, improve fuel economy and lower emissions have outpaced the development of typical commercial engine lubricants. Advanced designed engines began to experience oil starvation as a result of a combination of driving cycles, oil quality and poor maintenance practices. The cause was traced to excessive increases in borderline pumping viscosity as measured by MRV TP-1 (ASTM D4684). Used oil analysis for MRV TP-1 showed viscosity greatly increased in excess of stay-in-grade requirements and in many cases the crankcase lubricant was solid at the temperature appropriate for its viscosity grade. However, at the same time CCS values were in grade or only slightly (1W grade) elevated.
Technical Paper

248mm Elliptical Torque Converter from DaimlerChrysler Corporation

The need for efficient space utilization has provided a framework for the design of a 248mm family of torque converters that supports a wide choice of engine and transmission combinations. The axial length of the part and its weight have been substantially reduced while the performance range has been broadened without degradation of efficiency. The new converter operates in an expanded slipping clutch mode. It significantly contributes to the performance and fuel economy improvements of related vehicles. To meet the cost target, the comprehensive lineup and the resulting complexity have required a high level of component interchangeability. During the design phase, the manufacturing core competencies were scrutinized and process redundancies eliminated, both resulting in optimization of material selection and applicable technology.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Improving Low Frequency Torsional Vibrations NVH Performance through Analysis and Test

Low frequency torsional vibrations can be a significant source of objectionable vehicle vibrations and in-vehicle boom, especially with changes in engine operation required for improved fuel economy. These changes include lower torque converter lock-up speeds and cylinder deactivation. This paper has two objectives: 1) Examine the effect of increased torsional vibrations on vehicle NVH performance and ways to improve this performance early in the program using test and simulation techniques. The important design parameters affecting vehicle NVH performance will be identified, and the trade-offs required to produce an optimized design will be examined. Also, the relationship between torsional vibrations and mount excursions, will be examined. 2) Investigate the ability of simulation techniques to predict and improve torsional vibration NVH performance. Evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models by comparison to test results.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Correlating an Air Motion Number to Combustion Metrics and Initial Flame Kernel Development

This study attempts to develop a correlation between an airflow motion number, combustion burn rates, and initial flame kernel development. To accomplish this task, several motion plates were evaluated on a flowbench in order to calculate a motion number that would represent the dynamic motion in the combustion chamber. Afterwards, the plates were tested on a spark ignited engine at several part throttle conditions while gathering cylinder pressure measurements. These cylinder pressure measurements would then yield the combustion burn rates for each plate. In addition to the combustion measurements, the flame kernel growth, velocity and direction of the flame kernel were measured using an AVL Visio-flame. Finally, the data was evaluated and an attempt to correlate the motion number of the plates to the different measurements for describing combustion was made.
Technical Paper

The New “7G-TRONIC” of Mercedes-Benz: Innovative Transmission Technology for Better Driving Performance, Comfort and Fuel Economy

In September 2003, the Mercedes Car Group set another milestone by introducing the fifth generation of automatic transmissions developed and manufactured in-house since 1960. The world's first 7-speed automatic transmission 7G-TRONIC is featured in the Mercedes-Benz S, SL, CL and E-Classes with V8 gasoline engines. Deduced from the demands of the requirement specifications, the 5-speed automatic transmission was decisively improved; the result is a clear increase in spontaneity, agility, fuel economy, and driving comfort for the customer. And because of the harmony between the vehicle and its powertrain, excellent results in the areas of performance, reduced emissions, comfort, and acoustics are obtained.
Technical Paper

A Fully Variable Mechanical Valvetrain with a Simple Moving Pivot

A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Stop/Start at Idle System

A project was undertaken to demonstrate an engine stop/start at idle system utilizing a 12 volt Belt driven Starter Generator (BSG). The system was developed on a production four cylinder vehicle to determine emissions, driveability, and fuel economy impact.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Effects of Vehicle Size and Mass on Crash-Injury Outcome through Parameterized Probability Manifolds

One way to improve vehicle's fuel economy is to reduce its weight. Reducing weight, however has other consequences. One of these is reduced vehicle size. Almost invariably, lighter vehicles are smaller. Reducing vehicle weight has also been associated with a reduction in occupant protection; the lighter the vehicle, the greater the chance of injury when a crash occurs. For this study, a data-based model is used to evaluate the independent effects of size and weight. This model is constructed using the NASS database and information obtained from NCAP tests. The results indicate that although mass is the dominant factor, size also has an effect; some of the observed reduction in safety benefits associated with mass reduction is actually an effect of size reduction. The model is also used to evaluate the effects of varying stiffness.
Technical Paper

The New DaimlerChrysler Corporation 5.7L HEMI® V8 Engine

For the 2003 model year DaimlerChrysler Corporation (DCC) will introduce an all-new 5.7L V8 truck engine manufactured at the new Saltillo II Engine Plant (SEPII) in Saltillo, Mexico. The product will debut in the new RAM series of pick-up trucks and marks the return of the hemispherical combustion chamber architecture. This paper covers the engine design features, simulation methods, development, and manufacturing processes. Also reviewed are the project objectives and the organizational processes used to manage and deliver the program.