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Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE a New Generation Light Truck Automatic Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-1260
The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive automatic transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve outstanding shift quality and to meet demanding durability goals. It uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun gears and annulus gears to have the same number of teeth respectively and use a common pinion gear in all carriers, resulting in significant manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used only in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Press-Line Simulation in Stamping Process

2004-03-08
2004-01-1047
The automotive industry is rapidly implementing computer simulation in every aspect of their processes mainly to decrease the time required to bring new models to market. Computer simulation can also be used to reduce the cost of vehicle development and manufacturing. A major portion of the manufacturing cost associated with automotive stamping lies in the process design, build and tryout of production dies and in automation of the transfer equipment. Press home-line tryout is largely a trial-and-error process relying heavily on the skills and experience of tool and die makers. To reduce this dependence on human skills and effort, press-line simulation can be effectively utilized to verify the design accuracy thereby reducing the changes needed to rework the production die/tool. The entire press-line with all its complete accessories can be modeled and checked for design errors similar to the try-out conducted in the production plant.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Speed Prediction for Driver Assistance Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0170
A predictive automatic gear shift system is currently under development. The system optimizes the gear shift process, taking the conditions of the road ahead into account, such that the fuel consumption is minimized. An essential part of the system is a module that predicts the vehicle speed dynamics: This calculates a speed trajectory, i.e. the most probable vehicle speed the driver will desire for the upcoming section of the route. In the paper the theoretical background for predicting the vehicle speed, and simulation results of the predictive shift algorithm are presented.
Technical Paper

Side Window Buffeting Characteristics of an SUV

2004-03-08
2004-01-0230
Buffeting is a wind noise of high intensity and low frequency in a moving vehicle when a window or sunroof is open and this noise makes people in the passenger compartment very uncomfortable. In this paper, side window buffeting was simulated for a typical SUV using the commercial CFD software Fluent 6.0. Buffeting frequency and intensity were predicted in the simulations and compared with the corresponding experimental wind tunnel measurement. Furthermore, the effects of several parameters on buffeting frequency and intensity were also studied. These parameters include vehicle speed, yaw angle, sensor location and volume of the passenger compartment. Various configurations of side window opening were considered. The effects of mesh size and air compressibility on buffeting were also evaluated. The simulation results for some baseline configurations match the corresponding experimental data fairly well.
Technical Paper

A Computer Model Based Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1564
The objective of this work is to perform a computer model based sensitivity analysis of parameters of an automotive air conditioning system to identify the critical parameters. Design of Experiment (DOE) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques have been used to identify the critical parameters and their relative effects on the air conditioning system performance. The sensitivity analysis has been verified by running similar tests on an air conditioning system test stand (AC Test Stand).
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1568
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

2006-04-03
2006-01-1268
In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.
Technical Paper

Truck Frame Motion Prediction and Correlation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1257
Accurate motion prediction can be used to evaluate vibrations at seat track and steering wheel. This paper presents the prediction and correlation of truck frame motion from wheel force transducer (WFT) measurements. It is assumed that the method can be used to predict vibrations at seat track and steering wheel for unibody vehicles. Two durability events were used for calculation. WFT measurements were used as inputs applied on frame from suspension. Frame loads were then used as inputs to calculate frame motions using a FEA approach. The predicted frame motions are represented by four exhaust hangers and they are compared with measured motions of the same locations. The correlations include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. It is shown that good correlations are obtained in velocity and displacement. Acceleration shows bigger differences than velocity and displacement.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0697
A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

Model Based Development and Auto Testing: A Robust Approach for Reliable Automotive Software Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-1420
Automotive electronics and software is getting complex day by day. More and more features and functions are offered and supported by software in place of hardware. Communication is carried out on the CAN bus instead of hard wired circuits. This architectural transition facilitates lots of flexibility, agility and economy in development. However, it introduces risk of unexpected failures due to insufficient testing and million of possible combinations, which can be created by users during the life time of a product. Model based development supports an effective way of handling these complexities during simulation and also provide oracle for its validation. Based on priorities and type of applications, test vectors can be auto generated and can be used for formal verification of the models. These auto-generated test vectors are valuable assets in testing and can be effectively reused for target hardware (ECU) verification.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Test Cell for Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Powertrain Technologies using Model-Controlled Dynamometers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1409
Current engine development processes typically involve extensive steady-state and simple transient testing in order to characterize the engine's fuel consumption, emissions, and performance based on several controllable inputs such as throttle, spark advance, and EGR. Steady-state and simple transient testing using idealistic load conditions alone, however, is no longer sufficient to meet powertrain development schedule requirements. Mapping and calibration of an engine under transient operation has become critically important. And, independent engine development utilizing accelerated techniques is becoming more attractive. In order to thoroughly calibrate new engines in accelerated fashion and under realistic transient conditions, more advanced testing is necessary.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Robust Design of Automotive Thermal Systems - A Federated Approach

2006-04-03
2006-01-1576
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Process to Achieve NVH Goals: Subsystem Targets via “Digital Prototype” Simulations

1999-05-17
1999-01-1692
A process to achieve vehicle system level NVH objectives using CAE simulation tools is discussed. Issues of modeling methodology, already covered adequately in the literature, are less emphasized so that the paper can focus on the application of a process that encompasses objective setting, design synthesis, and performance achievement using simulation predictions. A reference simulation model establishes correlation levels and modeling methods that are applied to future predictions. The new model, called a “Digital Mule”, is an early new product “design intent” simulation used to arrive at subsystem goals to meet the vehicle level NVH objectives. Subsystem goals are established at discrete noise paths where structure borne noise enters the body subsystem. The process also includes setting limits on the excitation sources, such as suspension and powertrain.
Technical Paper

Representation of Constrained/Unconstrained Layer Damping Treatments in FEA/SEA Vehicle System Models: A Simplified Approach

1999-05-17
1999-01-1680
In this study, a simplified approach to modeling the dynamics of damping treatments in FEA (Finite Element)/ SEA (Statistical Energy) models is presented. The basic idea is to represent multi-layered composite structures with an equivalent layer. The properties of the equivalent layer are obtained by using the RKU (Ross, Kerwin and Ungar) method. The procedure presented here does not require any special pre-processing of the finite element input file and it does not increase the number of active degrees of freedom in the model, thereby making it possible to include the effect of these treatments in large system/subsystem level models. The equivalent properties obtained from RKU analysis can also be used in the SEA system models. In this study, both unconstrained and constrained layer damping treatments applied to simple structures (e.g., flat panels) as well as production vehicle components are examined.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Topology and Performance Redesign by Large Admissible Perturbations for Automotive Structural Design

2001-03-05
2001-01-1058
A methodology for topology and performance redesign of complex structures by LargE Admissible Perturbations (LEAP) has been developed since 1983 in the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, the University of Michigan. LEAP theory has successfully solved various redesign problems for performance and simultaneous topological and performance changes. The redesign problem is defined as a two-state problem that consists of two structural states, States S1 and S2. State S1 has undesirable characteristics or performance which does not satisfy designer specifications. The unknown State S2 has the desired structural response and/or performance. The relation between State S1 and State S2 is highly nonlinear with respect to its response or topology. So far, LEAP algorithms have solved various redesign problems for large structural changes (on the order of 100%–500%) of State S1 with only one finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Simulation of Tire Impact Response

2001-04-30
2001-01-1481
One of the major NVH concerns for automobile manufacturers is the response of a vehicle to the impact of the tire as it encounters a road discontinuity or bump. This paper describes methods for analyzing the impact response of a vehicle to such events. The test vehicle is driven on a dynamometer, on which a bump simulating cleat is mounted. The time histories of the cleat impact response of the vehicle can be classified as a transient and a repeated signal, which should be processed in a special way. This paper describes the related signal processing issues, which include converting the time data into a continous spectrum, determination of the correct scaling factor for the analyzed spectrum, and smoothing out harmonics and fluctuations in the signal. This procedure yields a smooth frequency spectrum with a correctly scaled amplitude, in which the frequency contents can be easily identified.
Technical Paper

New Technology in Passive Adaptive Traction Control for Four Wheel Drive Vehicles

1999-03-01
1999-01-1262
An advancement in traction control has entered the marketplace this year with the debut of the 1999 Jeep® Grand Cherokee equipped with the Quadra-TracII or Quadra-Drive four wheel drive systems. The new technology that is at the heart of these systems is the progressive coupling. A new passive adaptive traction control device that utilizes much of the hardware normally associated with automatic transmissions but applied to enhance traction. In the following report the function of progressive coupling will be described along with design characteristics and parameter recommendations.
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