Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Vehicle Mass and Stiffness: Search for a Relationship

2004-03-08
2004-01-1168
The effects of vehicle “stiffness” and mass on the occupant response during a crash may be determined by evaluation of accident data. However, “stiffness” and mass may be correlated, making it difficult to separate their effects. In addition, a single-valued “stiffness”, although well defined for linear case, is not well defined for non-linear systems, such as in vehicle crash, making the separation task even more difficult. One approach to addressing the lack of a clear definition of stiffness is to use multiple definitions. Each stiffness definition can then be correlated with mass to look for trends. In this study, such an approach was taken, and the different stiffness definitions were given and their values were obtained from rigid barrier crash test data. No clear relationship between mass and stiffness appears to exist. All the stiffness measures reviewed show, at best, only a weak correlation with mass. A stiffness analysis among different vehicle types was also carried out.
Technical Paper

Use of a Kalman Filter to Improve the Estimation of ATD Response During Impact

1999-03-01
1999-01-0707
A new approach for improving estimates of the kinematic response of ATDs (anthropomorphic test devices) to vehicle crash events has been developed. This approach employs the Kalman Filter; a state model based estimation approach that has been widely applied to system dynamics problems ranging from navigation to missile guidance. The Kalman Filter approach combines measurements of crash event phenomena (acceleration and displacement), kinematic models of ATD behavior and statistics of sensor noise to create precise estimates of ATD motion during a crash. This paper presents an implementation of a state model and Kalman Filter for a sensor data collected from the chest of an ATD during an out-of-position airbag deployment test. Favorable comparisons are made between the Kalman Filter model approach and traditional methods involving numerical integration and differentiation.
Technical Paper

Simple Models for Analysis of Curb- and Soil-trip Rollover Events

2006-04-03
2006-01-0722
Simple rigid body dynamics models are created to analyze the curb- and soil-trip types of rollover events and experimental methods that are used to simulate these events. Equations for the models are given, and they are integrated numerically to obtain the solution. Solutions of the models provide a break down of the energy during these events, which exposes the importance of energy absorption, unloading, and friction during the impact-and-roll process. Furthermore, the models are used to derive the critical sliding velocity under different test parameters. They are also used to understand near-critical state responses of the vehicle, and the corresponding characteristics of the signals in the phase space.
Technical Paper

In Vehicle Exhaust Mount Load Measurement and Calculation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1258
Exhaust durability is an important measure of quality, which can be predicted using CAE with accurate mount loads. This paper proposes an innovative method to calculate these loads from measured mount accelerations. A Chrysler vehicle was instrumented with accelerometers at both ends of its four exhaust mounts. The vehicle was tested at various durability routes or events at DaimlerChrysler Proving Grounds. These measured accelerations were integrated to obtain their velocities and displacements. The differences in velocities and displacements at each mount were multiplied by its damping and stiffness rates to obtain the mount load. The calculation was conducted for all three translational directions and for all events. The calculated mount loads are shown within reasonable range. Along with CAE, it is suggested to explore this method for exhaust durability development.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Vehicle Parameters on Car to Car Frontal Crash Fatality Risk Estimated through a Parameterized Model

2006-04-03
2006-01-1134
For the purposes of analyzing and understanding the general effects of a set of different vehicle attributes on overall crash outcome a fleet model is used. It represents the impact response, in a one-dimensional sense, of two vehicle frontal crashes, across the frontal crash velocity spectrum. The parameters studied are vehicle mass, stiffness, intrusion, pulse shape and seatbelt usage. The vehicle impact response parameters are obtained from the NCAP tests. The fatality risk characterization, as a function of the seatbelt use and vehicle velocity, is obtained from the NASS database. The fatality risk is further mapped into average acceleration to allow for evaluation of the different vehicle impact response parameters. The results indicate that the effects of all the parameters are interconnected and none of them is independent. For example, the effect of vehicle mass on fatality risk depends on seatbelt use, vehicle stiffness, available crush, intrusion and pulse shape.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Bead-Stiffened Flat Panels: FEA, SEA, and Experimental Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1698
Vibration and sound radiation characteristics of bead-stiffened panels are investigated. Rectangular panels with different bead configurations are considered. The attention is focused on various design parameters, such as orientation, depth, and periodicity, and their effects on equivalent bending stiffness, modal density, radiation efficiency and sound transmission. A combined FEA-SEA approach is used to determine the response characteristics of panels across a broad frequency range. The details of the beads are represented in fine-meshed FEA models. Based on predicted surface velocities, Rayleigh integral is evaluated numerically to calculate the sound pressure, sound power and then the radiation efficiency of beaded panels. Analytical results are confirmed by comparing them with experimental measurements. In the experiments, the modal densities of the panels are inferred from averaged mechanical conductance.
Technical Paper

Information Flow Analysis for Air Bag Sensor Development

2000-03-06
2000-01-1388
A statistical theory is used to quantify the amount of information transmitted from a transducer (i.e., accelerometer) to the air bag controller during a vehicle crash. The amount of information relevant to the assessment of the crash severity is evaluated. This quantification procedure helps determine the effectiveness of different testing conditions for the calibration of sensor algorithms. The amount of information in an acceleration signal is interpreted as a measure of the ability to separate signals based on parameters that are used to assess the severity of an impact. Applications to a linear spring-mass model and to actual crash signals from a development vehicle are presented. In particular, the comparison of rigid barrier (RB) and offset deformable barrier (ODB) testing modes is analyzed. Also, the performance of front-mounted and passenger compartment accelerometers are compared.
Technical Paper

Application of Multi-Parameter and Boundary Mannequin Techniques in Automotive Assembly Process

2003-06-17
2003-01-2198
This paper deals with the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques in creating human models in automotive applications. The concepts and applications of single-parameter, multiple parameter and boundary mannequin method are discussed respectively to clarify certain confusion. Emphasis is put on how to create boundary mannequins for a specific application, which may have been puzzling many engineers in practical applications. The authors would like to share their experience in using the digital human modeling software and make discussions on some common issues. A number of case studies from typical automotive manufacturing assembly operations are also presented to demonstrate the usage of the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques.
Technical Paper

Multi-Mannequin Coordination and Communication in Digital Workcells

2003-06-17
2003-01-2197
It is commonly known that in an automotive manufacturing assembly line several workers perform either a common task or a number of different tasks simultaneously, and there is a need to represent such a multi-worker operation realistically in a digital environment. In the past years, most digital human modeling applications were limited only in a single worker case. This paper presents how to simulate multi-worker operations in a digital workcell. To establish an effective communication and interaction between the mannequins, some existing commercial software package has provided a digital input/output mechanism. The motion for each mannequin is often programmed independently, but can be interrupted anytime by the other digital human models or devices via a communication channel.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Effects of Vehicle Size and Mass on Crash-Injury Outcome through Parameterized Probability Manifolds

2003-03-03
2003-01-0905
One way to improve vehicle's fuel economy is to reduce its weight. Reducing weight, however has other consequences. One of these is reduced vehicle size. Almost invariably, lighter vehicles are smaller. Reducing vehicle weight has also been associated with a reduction in occupant protection; the lighter the vehicle, the greater the chance of injury when a crash occurs. For this study, a data-based model is used to evaluate the independent effects of size and weight. This model is constructed using the NASS database and information obtained from NCAP tests. The results indicate that although mass is the dominant factor, size also has an effect; some of the observed reduction in safety benefits associated with mass reduction is actually an effect of size reduction. The model is also used to evaluate the effects of varying stiffness.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Experience with the IR-TRACC Chest Deflection Transducer

2002-03-04
2002-01-0188
In 1998, Rouhana et al. described development of a new device, called the IR-TRACC (InfraRed - Telescoping Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression). In its original concept, the IR-TRACC uses two infrared LEDs inside of a telescoping rod to measure deflection. One LED serves as a light transmitter and the other as a light receiver. The output from the receiver LED is converted to a linear function of chest compression using an analog circuit. Tests have been performed with IR-TRACC units at various labs around the world since 1998. A first-generation IR-TRACC system was retrofit into a Q3 dummy by TNO. Similarly, a mid sized male Hybrid III dummy thorax and a small female Hybrid III dummy thorax have been designed by First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) such that each contains 4 second-generation IR-TRACC units. The second-generation IR-TRACC is the result of continued development by FTSS, especially in the areas of the analysis circuit, manufacturing and calibration methods.
Technical Paper

A Method for Improving the Accuracy of Standard Stereo Photogrammetry When Using Small Subtended Angles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0751
In stereo photogrammetry, the accuracy of calculating the location of a point in space, decreases as the angle between the two cameras decreases. For vehicle crash testing, the need for accurate 3D data conflicts with the need for flexible positioning of the cameras, to enable unobstructed views of the targets inside the vehicle throughout the impact event. This paper discusses a method for increasing the quantity and quality of film analysis data when small subtended angles are used. The method uses the 3D information developed through triangulation of two cameras as input to a single camera analysis.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Impact Testing of Plastic Materials

2005-04-11
2005-01-1412
This study will analyze existing procedures and commercially available testing equipment for low temperature impact testing of plastic materials. The results of this analysis will be used to identify continuous improvement opportunities and develop recommended practices for low temperature impact testing to support ongoing efforts to meet related durability and performance needs of automotive components.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Position Measurement using String-pots

2005-04-11
2005-01-1419
It is often necessary to measure three-axis displacement of a deforming or moving part in static or dynamic impact tests. A point moving in the three-dimensional space can be monitored and measured using three string-pots or other distance measuring devices with a methodology developed here. A numerical algorithm along with required equations are shown and discussed. The algorithm was applied as an example to static seat pull test and compared to results from film analysis. The application with string pots is useful especially when the point of concern gets hidden or blocked by other parts disabling the photogrammetry technology.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Bag Mini-Diluter and Direct Vehicle Exhaust Volume System for Low Level Emissions Measurement

2000-03-06
2000-01-0793
With the adoption of the California Low-Emission Vehicle Regulations and the associated lower emission standards such as LEV (Low-Emission Vehicle in 1990), ULEV (Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle), and LEV II (1998 with SULEV-Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle), concerns were raised by emissions researchers over the accuracy and reliability of collecting and analyzing emissions measurements at such low levels. The primary concerns were water condensation, optimizing dilution ratios, and elimination of background contamination. These concerns prompted a multi-year research program looking at several new sampling techniques. This paper will describe the cooperative research conducted into one of these new technologies, namely the Bag Mini-Diluter (BMD) and Direct Vehicle Exhaust (DVE) Volume system.
Technical Paper

Reinventing Safety Systems: Roadblocks; Organizational Structure, Data Analysis Bias, and Systems Integration

2006-10-16
2006-21-0061
The automotive environment, within which original equipment manufacturers (OEM's) design, develop, and produce safety initiatives is fluid in light of regulatory and non-regulatory safety initiatives, and other competitive market realities. As current passive safety systems are being refined and expanded to include the general population, active safety systems covering accident avoidance are presenting a “new frontier” for engineers to explore. Other competitive hurdles include cost, weight, quality, and customer acceptance criteria. To effectively address this complexity, OEM's must completely reinvent safety system design and development processes. Specifically this paper outlines safety system design and development roadblocks encountered due to organizational structure, data analysis bias, and the need for component system integration.
Technical Paper

A CAE Based Stochastic Assessment and Improvement of Vehicle NCAP Response

2004-03-08
2004-01-0458
One of the primary issues in the interpretation of vehicle impact response data, observed from vehicle crash test events, is coping with variability. This vehicle response inconsistency generally causes test results to be unpredictable and makes CAE test validation work difficult as well. This paper, considering the uncertain characteristics of vehicle impact events, has implemented a stochastic assessment of vehicle NCAP response variation through a CAE vehicle impact model, and it has accomplished the three primary study objectives as stated follows: 1) Identify the response variation causing factors stochastically from various structural and environmental factor candidates and quantify the degree of their influences on crash response, 2) Develop a methodology for interpreting the significance of the factor effects in conjunction with vehicle impact mechanics and physics, and 3) Implement a stochastic improvement of the vehicle NCAP responses and their repeatability
Technical Paper

Vehicle Pulse Shape Optimization to Improve Occupant Response in Front Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1625
This paper presents a new approach to improve occupant response in a front impact event. Instead of designing a vehicle structure for maximum structural efficiency and safety and then engineer a restraint system for the vehicle, this paper proposes to use a systems approach. In this approach, the vehicle structural response during impact (i.e., pulse) and the restraint system are considered together in the optimization process. In this paper, the 35 mph front impact into a rigid barrier with belted occupants, which is the NHTSA NCAP test, will be used to demonstrate the proposed new approach.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Diesel Fuels Test Program

2001-03-05
2001-01-0150
This paper reports on DaimlerChrysler's participation in the Ad Hoc Diesel Fuels Test Program. This program was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy and included major U.S. auto makers, major U.S. oil companies, and the Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to identify diesel fuels and fuel properties that could facilitate the successful use of compression ignition engines in passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the United States at Tier 2 and LEV II tailpipe emissions standards. This portion of the program focused on minimizing engine-out particulates and NOx by using selected fuels, (not a matrix of fuel properties,) in steady state dynamometer tests on a modern, direct injection, common rail diesel engine.
X