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Technical Paper

New ways of fluid flow control in automobiles: Experience with exhaust gas aftertreatmetn control

Flow control by fluidic devices - without moving parts - offers advantages of reliability and low cost. As an example of their automobile application based on authors'' long-time experience the paper describes a fluidic valve for switching exhaust gas flow in a NOx absorber into a by-pass during regeneration phase. The unique feature here is the fluidic valve being of monostable and of axisymmetric design, integrated into the absorber body. After development in aerodynamic laboratory, the final design was tested on engine test stand and finally in a car. This proved that the performance under high temperature and pulsation existing in exhaust systems is reliable and promising. Fluidic valves require, however, close matching with aerodynamic load. To optimize the exhaust system layout for the whole load-speed range and reaching minimum counter- pressure, both the components of exhaust system and control strategy have to be properly adopted.
Technical Paper

Benefits of GTL Fuel in Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters

Synthetic fuels are expected to play an important role for future mobility, because they can be introduced seamlessly alongside conventional fuels without the need for new infrastructure. Thus, understanding the interaction of GTL fuels with modern engines, and aftertreatment systems, is important. The current study investigates potential benefits of GTL fuel in respect of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Experiments were conducted on a Euro 4 TDI engine, comparing the DPF response to two different fuels, normal diesel and GTL fuel. The investigation focused on the accumulation and regeneration behavior of the DPF. Results indicated that GTL fuel reduced particulate formation to such an extent that the regeneration cycle was significantly elongated, by ∼70% compared with conventional diesel. Thus, the engine could operate for this increased time before the DPF reached maximum load and regeneration was needed.
Technical Paper

Combustion in a Swirl Chamber Diesel Engine Simulation by Computation of Fluid Dynamics

The combustion and pollutant formation processes in a 1.9 I IDI Diesel engine are simulated with the SPEED computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A part and a full load simulation of the production engine and a full load simulation of a modified engine design are analyzed. The mixing and combustion process is visualized for all cases by means of the isosurfaces of stoichiometric mixture. The correlation of this surface with global quantities as heat release, mean pressure and temperature and swirl ratio is emphasized. The global properties are presented resolved for the swirl, main chamber and the swirl chamber throat separately. The formation of thermal NO and soot are simulated and analyzed.
Technical Paper

NOx Formation in Diesel Engines for Various Fuels and Intake Gases

The NO formation is essentially determined by the flame temperature. In an engine the latter depends on the composition of the fuel and the intake gas. In this study the efficiency of various NO reducing measures is analysed by means of a comparison of measurements and computations for the Most frequent operation point of a 1.9 1 DI Diesel engine. The O2 concentration, which is shown to be the dominant source of influence on the flame temperature and NO formation, is varied using synthetic gas mixtures or by EGR. The molar heat capacity of CO2 and H2O in the recirculated exhaust gas, the intake temperature and the H/C ratio in the fuel are less important for the formation of NO. Measures which reduce the NO formation increase the ignition delay and thereby the fraction of the premixed combustion. The impact of EGR on the combustion process is illustrated by high speed filming.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Application of Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) for NVH Analysis of a Passenger Car

The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.
Technical Paper

Optimum Diesel Fuel for Future Clean Diesel Engines

Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation

An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition on NMOG-Emissions and Ozone Forming Potential

VOLKSWAGEN has conducted a number of investigations on a Multi Fuel Vehicle (MFV), designed for variable fuel operation, to determine the influence of fuel composition and clean fuels on exhaust emissions, mainly on ozone forming potential. Results of the tests indicate a small advantage of Phase II Reformulated Gasoline and a greater one for for methanol fuel M85, compared to today's gasoline. For M85 there is an about 25 % lower ozone forming potential. The most critical components in the exhaust of methanol fueled vehicles (M85) are unburned methanol and formaldehyde, forming more than 60 % of the total ozone forming potential. Therefore improvement of cold start and warmup driving during the first two to three minutes is of great importance, because in this time about 90 % of the mentioned components are formed.
Technical Paper

Catalytic NOx Reduction in Net Oxidizing Exhaust Gas

Several different possibilities will be described and discussed on the processes of reducing NOx in lean-burn gasoline and diesel engines. In-company studies were conducted on zeolitic catalysts. With lean-burn spark-ignition engines, hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas act as a reducing agent. In stationary conditions at λ = 1.2, NOx conversion rates of approx. 45 % were achieved. With diesel engines, the only promising variant is SCR technology using urea as a reducing agent. The remaining problems are still the low space velocity and the narrow temperature window of the catalyst. The production of reaction products and secondary reactions of urea with other components in the diesel exhaust gas are still unclarified.
Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in a DI Diesel Engine using a Flamelet Model

A 3-dimensional numerical study has been conducted investigating the combustion process in a VW 1.9l TDI Diesel engine. Simulations were performed modeling the spray injection of a 5-hole Diesel injector in a pressure chamber. A graphical methodology was utilized to match the spray resulting from the widely used Discrete Droplet Spray model to pressure chamber spray images. Satisfactory agreement has been obtained regarding the simulated and experimental spray penetration and cone angles. Thereafter, the combustion process in the engine was simulated. Using engine measurements to initialize the combustion chamber conditions, the compression stroke, the spray injection and the combustion simulation was performed. The novel RTZF two-zone flamelet combustion model was used for the combustion simulation and was tested for partial load operating conditions. An objective analysis of the model is presented including the results of a numerical parameter study.
Technical Paper

Code Coupling, a New Approach to Enhance CFD Analysis of Engines

A new method for the analysis of the gas flow in an internal combustion engine has been developed. It is based on the interactive coupling between commercially available three (STAR-CD) and one dimensional (PROMO) fluid dynamics codes. With this method the detailed transient flow distribution for any engine component of interest can be calculated taking into account the overall gas dynamic interaction with other engine components. The underlying physics and numerics are outlined. A description of the coupling procedure ensuring proper communication between the two computer codes is given. Also addressed is the averaging procedure adopted at the 3D boundaries, including the influence of the 1D/3D interface placement. A first application of this new method is presented, in which the gas flow in a turbo-charged DI-diesel-engine is simulated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Optimize Catalyst Flow Uniformity

A uniform flow distribution at converter inlet is one of the fundamental requirements to meet high catalytic efficiency. Commonly used tools for optimization of the inlet flow distribution are flow measurements as well as CFD analysis. This paper puts emphasis on the experimental procedures and results. The interaction of flow measurements and CFD is outlined. The exhaust gas flow is transient, compressible and hot, making in-situ flow measurements very complex. On the other hand, to utilize the advantages of flow testing at steady-state and cold conditions the significance of these results has to be verified first. CFD analysis under different boundary conditions prove that - in a first approach - the flow situation can be regarded as a sequence of successive, steady-state situations. Using the Reynolds analogy a formula for the steady-state, cold test mass flow is derived, taking into account the cylinder displacement and the rated speed.
Technical Paper

Fuel/Air-Ratio Measurements in Direct Injection Gasoline Sprays Using 1D Raman Scattering

One dimensional Spontaneous Raman Scattering measurements (RS) have been performed in a spray (standard gasoline, one-component and multi-component model fuels) which was operated in a high-temperature, high-pressure chamber, so that realistic engine conditions have been simulated. The present work investigates under what conditions 1D-RS can be employed for fuel/air-ratio measurements in realistic DI gasoline sprays. The distance from the spray axis has been determined, til that, coming from the outside, quantitative Raman measurement are possible. The equivalence ratio has been quantified for the one component fuel close to the spray. It turns out that the measurement error depends strongly on the type of fuel. These problems are caused by the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) content of the fuel, which leads to interfering laser-induced fluorescence signals.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment of Volkswagen FSI Fuel Stratified Injection Engines

For substantial reduction of fuel consumption of their vehicle fleet, Volkswagen AG has decided to develop spark-ignition engines with direct fuel injection. To launch this new engine concept with stratified lean operation mode while at the same time meeting the stringent EU IV emission standards, it was necessary to develop a suitable exhaust gas aftertreatment system. This was achieved as part of an intensive co-operation between Volkswagen AG and OMG, formerly dmc2 Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG. The paper describes the demands for exhaust gas aftertreatment due to lean burn operation. In addition the main development steps of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Volkswagen FSI engines and catalyst durability over vehicle lifetime are discussed. Focus is laid on the catalyst system design and coating variations. Volkswagen developed a new closed-loop emission control management system which uses NOx-sensor signals for the first time worldwide.
Journal Article

Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of the Mixing Process in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Scale-Resolving Simulations

Since the mechanisms leading to cyclic combustion variabilities in direct injection gasoline engines are still poorly understood, advanced computational studies are necessary to be able to predict, analyze and optimize the complete engine process from aerodynamics to mixing, ignition, combustion and heat transfer. In this work the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model is used in combination with a parameterized lagrangian spray model for the purpose of predicting transient in-cylinder cold flow, injection and mixture formation in a gasoline engine. An existing CFD model based on FLUENT v15.0 [1] has been extended with a spray description using the FLUENT Discrete Phase Model (DPM). This article will first discuss the validation of the in-cylinder cold flow model using experimental data measured within an optically accessible engine by High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV).
Technical Paper

European Diesel Research IDEA-Experimental Results from DI Diesel Engine Investigations

Within the European research programme IDEA (Integrated Diesel European Action), detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the fundamental phenomena of the Diesel engine like flow, injection, mixture formation, auto-ignition, combustion and pollutant formation were carried out to improve knowledge and to set up models for a simulation code. Because this basic research of the Diesel combustion process is very complex and cost intensive, it was carried out jointly by the JRC (Joint Research Committee), an association of European car manufacturers (Fiat, Peugeot SA, Renault, Volvo and Volkswagen). The activities were also subsidized by the Commission of the European Communities and the Swedish National Board of Technical Development. The results of the research work will support the design of even more efficient engines and the further reduction of soot and NOx emissions and will also enable the companies to reduce time and cost in developing new engines.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components of Modern Diesel Passenger Cars

In this paper the emissions of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components of a fleet of diesel passenger cars measured at Volkswagen in the eighties are compared with the results of a new investigation on modern direct-injection diesel vehicles. The potential of improved diesel fuels to reduce emissions is also examined. The emissions of regulated exhaust gas components as well as fuel consumption have been reduced significantly in the last years as a result of the systematic further development of conventional swirl chamber engines and exhaust gas after-treatment as well as the introduction of SDI/TDI engines. As was to be expected, this has also had a positive effect on the emissions of unregulated exhaust gas components. It has been possible, for example, to reduce the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on diesel particulates by more than 95%.