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Technical Paper

Transient Clunk Response of a Driveline System: Laboratory Experiment and Analytical Studies

2007-05-15
2007-01-2233
A laboratory experiment is designed to examine the clunk phenomenon. A static torque is applied to a driveline system via the mass of an overhanging torsion bar and electromagnet. Then an applied load may be varied via attached mass and released to simulate the step down (tip-out) response of the system. Shaft torques and torsional and translational accelerations are recorded at pre-defined locations. The static torque closes up the driveline clearances in the pinion/ring (crown wheel) mesh. With release of the applied load the driveline undergoes transient vibration. Further, the ratio of preload to static load is adjusted to lead to either no-impact or impact events. Test A provides a ‘linear’ result where the contact stiffness does not pass into clearance. This test is used for confirming transient response and studying friction and damping. Test B is for mass release with sufficient applied torque to pass into clearance, allowing the study of the clunk.
Technical Paper

Comparative Dynamic Analysis of Tire Tread Belt Detachments and Stepped Diameter (“Lumpy”) Tires

2007-04-16
2007-01-0846
In this study, tests were performed with modified tires at the right rear location on a solid axle sport utility vehicle to compare vehicle inputs and responses from both: (1) staged tire tread belt detachments, and (2) stepped diameter (“lumpy”) tires. Lumpy tires consist of equal size sections of tread that are vulcanized at equidistant locations around the outer circumference of the tire casing. Some have used lumpy tires in attempt to model the force and displacement inputs created by a tire tread belt separation. Four configurations were evaluated for the lumpy tires: 1-Lump, 2-Lump (2 lengths), and 3-Lump.
Technical Paper

Incorporating Design Variation into a 1-D Analytical Model of a 4.6L-4V Ford Engine for Improving Performance Projections

2007-10-29
2007-01-4098
One-dimensional simulation tools are used extensively in the automotive industry to improve and optimize engine design for WOT performance. They are useful in target setting and in assessing the effects of certain design changes (e.g. intake manifold, valve timing, exhaust manifold, etc.). Generally the inputs to these models are “nominal” values or curves from a particular set of data and, therefore, do not take into account design or assembly variations. Often times, performance expectations are not met due to these “real world” effects and may result in significant re-design and testing efforts. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of typical model input variation on engine performance and to instill greater confidence in the use of these models in forecasting performance. The approach taken is to collect, analyze, and categorize actual build measurements from a 4.6L 4V Ford engine that are considered important inputs for a one-dimensional modeling.
Technical Paper

Overall Results: Phase I Ad Hoc Diesel Fuel Test Program

2001-03-05
2001-01-0151
The future of diesel-engine-powered passenger cars and light-duty vehicles in the United States depends on their ability to meet Federal Tier 2 and California LEV2 tailpipe emission standards. The experimental purpose of this work was to examine the potential role of fuels; specifically, to determine the sensitivity of engine-out NOx and particulate matter (PM) to gross changes in fuel formulation. The fuels studied were a market-average California baseline fuel and three advanced low sulfur fuels (<2 ppm). The advanced fuels were a low-sulfur-highly-hydrocracked diesel (LSHC), a neat (100%) Fischer-Tropsch (FT100) and 15% DMM (dimethoxy methane) blended into LSHC (DMM15). The fuels were tested on modern, turbocharged, common-rail, direct-injection diesel engines at DaimlerChrysler, Ford and General Motors. The engines were tested at five speed/load conditions with injection timing set to minimize fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Response Comparison to Tire Tread Separations Induced by Circumferentially Cut and Distressed Tires

2007-04-16
2007-01-0733
In this study, tests were performed with modified tires at the right rear location on a solid rear axle sport utility vehicle to compare the vehicle inputs from both: (1) tire tread belt detachments staged by circumferentially cut tires, and (2) a tire tread detachment staged by distressing a tire in a laboratory environment. The forces and moments that transfer through the road wheel were measured at the right and left rear wheel locations using wheel force transducers; displacements were measured between the rear axle and the frame at the shock absorber mounting locations, ride height displacements were measured at the four corners of the vehicle, and accelerations were measured on the rear axle. Onboard vehicle accelerations and velocities were measured as well. The data shows that the tire tread belt detachments prepared by circumferentially cut tires and distressed tires have similar inputs to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Rigid Body Modes of Engine Mounting System Due to Mount Rates Variability

2006-10-31
2006-01-3466
While the engine mount rates need to be optimized to achieve the required frequency alignment and modal decoupling for quality performance, the robustness of the system needs to be studied as well. If a system exhibits acceptable modal characteristics with nominal optimized rates, the sensitivity of the system to variation of the rates from their nominal values affects the robustness of the system. Different factors can cause variation of the rates. Among them are rate changes from part to part arising from manufacturing process. In this paper the effect of mount rates variability on the modal characteristics is discussed. Monte Carlo simulation is used to predict how the rigid body modes and their couplings vary when the rate for each mount changes according to its statistical parameters. Through different examples the statistical variability of the modes to the rates variability is presented.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Explicit Finite Element Road Load Calculations for Vehicle Durability Simulations

2006-03-01
2006-01-1980
Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is evaluated during a vehicle's design and development. In addition, it is a basic expectation of consumers, who demand ever-increasing levels of quality and dependability. Automakers have developed corporate requirements for vehicle system durability which must be met before a products is delivered to the customer. To provide early predictions of vehicle durability, prior to the construction and testing of prototypes, it is necessary to predict the forces generated in the vehicle structure due to road inputs. This paper describes an application of the “virtual proving ground” approach for vehicle durability load prediction for a vehicle on proving ground road surfaces. Correlation of the results of such a series of simulations will be described, and the modeling and simulation requirements to provide accurate simulations will be presented.
Technical Paper

Lower-Body Injury Rates in Full-Engagement Frontal Impacts: Field Data and Logistic Models

2006-04-03
2006-01-1666
Lower-body injury data for adults in real-world frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) were collected, analyzed, and modeled via statistical methods. Two levels of lower-body injury were considered: maximum serious-to-fatal (MAIS3+) and moderate-to-fatal (MAIS2+). In the analysis, we observed that a substantial fraction of all lower-body injured occupants had no recorded floor/toe pan intrusion: 47% of all MAIS3+ injured occupants; 69% of all MAIS2+ injured occupants. In the statistical modeling, we developed binary logistic regression models to fit the MAIS3+ and MAIS 2+ injury data. The statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05) were the speed change of the crash, postcrash floor/toe pan intrusion, level of restraint, occupant age, and occupant gender.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Analysis of Power Train Rigid Body Modes

2006-11-21
2006-01-2782
This work is focused on the computer aided engineering noise and vibration control area (CAE-NVH), which is one of the most important in the automobile industry. The reason for that relevancy is that the noise and vibration effects can be directly perceived by the costumer. The vibration of the seats and steering wheel, as well as audible noises are some examples of factors that can cause discomfort to the driver. During the early design of a car, the systems are designed in a way to reach a good modal management level in order to avoid resonance problems. The finite element models, used to predict these resonances, are normally generated using only deterministic values for the model parameters such as stiffnesses, thicknesses and masses. However, these properties have an uncertainty due to the manufacturing process which is, in most cases, not taken into consideration during the design.
Technical Paper

Shoulder Injury and Response Due to Lateral Glenohumeral Joint Impact: An Analysis of Combined Data

2005-11-09
2005-22-0014
To date, several lateral impact studies (Bolte et al., 2000, 2003, Marth, 2002 and Compigne et al., 2004) have been performed on the shoulder to determine the response characteristics and injury threshold of the shoulder complex. Our understanding of the biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the shoulder would be improved if the results of these tests were combined. From a larger data base shoulder injury tolerance criteria can be developed as well as corridors for side impact dummies. Data from the study by Marth (2002, 12 tests) was combined with data from the previous studies. Twenty-two low speed tests (4.5 ± 0.7 m/s) and 9 high speed tests (6.7 ± 0.7 m/s) were selected from the combined data for developing corridors. Shoulder force, deflection and T1y acceleration corridors were developed using a minimization of cumulative variance technique.
Technical Paper

Derivation and Evaluation of a Provisional, Age-Dependent, AIS3+ Thoracic Risk Curve for Belted Adults in Frontal Impacts

2005-04-11
2005-01-0297
An age-dependent, serious-to-fatal (AIS3+), thoracic risk curve was derived and evaluated for frontal impacts. The study consisted of four parts. In Part 1, two datasets of post mortem human subjects (PMHS) were generated for statistical and sensitivity analyses. In Part 2, logistic regression analyses were conducted. For each dataset, two statistical methods were applied: (1) a conventional maximum likelihood method, and (2) a modified maximum likelihood method. Therefore, four statistical models were derived — one for each dataset/statistical method combination. For all of the resulting statistical models (risk curves), the linear combination of maximum normalized sternum deflection and age of the PMHS was identified as a feasible predictor of AIS3+ thoracic injury probability. In Part 3, the PMHS-based risk curves were transformed into test-dummy-based risk curves. In Part 4, validation studies were conducted for each risk curve.
Technical Paper

Analytical Life Prediction Modelling of an Automotive Timing Belt

2008-04-14
2008-01-1207
This paper presents a methodology that makes use of computer based analytical simulation methods combined with statistical tools to predict timing belt life. This allows timing belt life to be estimated with no requirement for running test engines and associated test equipment, which is both very time and expense exhaustive. A case study on a belt driven primary drive for a V6 Diesel engine was used to illustrate the methodology. A computer based dynamic model for the belt drive system was developed and validated, and a belt life prediction model was developed, which uses tooth load predictions from the analytical model. Statistical modeling of predicted damage accumulated to failure was used to estimate the model parameters given a limited set of belt life results from a motored rig test. The practical use of the model is illustrated by predicting belt life under customer usage.
Technical Paper

Accuracy of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) Event Data Recorders

2008-04-14
2008-01-0162
The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of speed data recorded in the Ford PCM under steady state conditions. The authors drove 3 different test vehicles at 5 different steady state speeds from 48 to 113 kph (30 to 70 mph), making 6 runs at each speed. The authors collected PCM data after each run. For the first vehicle a GPS based Racelogic VBOX III was used to measure speed. For the second and third vehicle a purpose built speed trap with .0001 second resolution was used. The authors compare the readings and calculated differences and statistical limits. The secondary purpose is to deliberately create conditions that could result in errors of speed measured, document the conditions, and to quantify the error.
Technical Paper

Three-Link Leaf-Spring Model for Road Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-0625
Simulation of road loads in truck suspensions generally requires leaf-spring models. This paper presents a simple and accurate leaf-spring model that can be effectively used in analytical road load simulations using ADAMS software. The model topology is based on the familiar SAE “three-link” model. The model parameters are identified from static force-deflection test data. Alternatively, the parameters can be identified from a target design specification or from analytical “tests” on a detailed finite element model. The new leaf spring model has been validated for static and dynamic performance using laboratory test data.
Technical Paper

Motion Analysis Enhances Visualization of Underbody Flow

2001-03-05
2001-01-0628
Velocity profiles for air flowing under a vehicle body are determined by analyzing videotapes of neutrally buoyant soap bubbles using motion analysis software and equipment. What had heretofore been primarily a qualitative flow visualization technique has been extended to provide quantitative data. The light sources, cameras, and bubble generator, mounted on the vehicle, are powered by the vehicle's electrical system, making it possible to compare underbody velocities measured in a wind tunnel with those over the road. Results are presented for a heavy-duty 4×4 pickup truck at speeds up to 25m/s (55 mph). The velocity profiles in the tunnel and on the road were quite similar.
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

2009-10-06
2009-36-0238
Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Mexico City Traffic and Los Angeles City Traffic Testing: An Approach to Test Route Development for Results Homologation

2012-09-17
2012-01-1808
Vehicle testing on public roads is used by the automotive community in different locations to evaluate the noise characteristics of brake systems under typical customer usage conditions. These tests are generally carried out on different locations and show results with questionable compatibility as has been concluded on several investigations over the last years [1]. Global projects on the other hand mandate to have tests that can represent vehicle usage in several types of environments in order to have reliable indicators of performance on different conditions. This paper suggests a method to characterize roads on different sites and modify the route to match a specific target.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road Excitations on Driveline Output Torque Measurements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1538
This paper presents the characterization of the random noise in driveline output shaft torque measurements that is commonly induced by road disturbances. To investigate the interaction between the shaft torque and road side excitation, torque signals are measured using a magnetoelastic torque sensor, as well as a conventional strain gauge sensor, under various types of road surfaces and conditions such as unevenness. A generalized de-trending method for producing a stationary random signal is first conducted. Statistical methods, in particular the probability density function and transform technique, are utilized to provide an evident signature for identifying the road excitation effect on the vehicle output shaft torque. Analysis results show how the road surface can act as a disturbance input to the vehicle shaft torque.
Technical Paper

Trail-Braking Driver Input Parameterization for General Corner Geometry

2008-12-02
2008-01-2986
Trail-Braking (TB) is a common cornering technique used in rally racing to negotiate tight corners at (moderately) high speeds. In a previous paper by the authors it has been shown that TB can be generated as the solution to the minimum-time cornering problem, subject to fixed final positioning of the vehicle after the corner. A TB maneuver can then be computed by solving a non-linear programming (NLP). In this work we formulate an optimization problem by relaxing the final positioning of the vehicle with respect to the width of the road in order to study the optimality of late-apex trajectories typically followed by rally drivers. We test the results on a variety of corners. The optimal control inputs are approximated by simple piecewise linear input profiles defined by a small number of parameters. It is shown that the proposed input parameterization can generate close to optimal TB along the various corner geometries.
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