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Technical Paper

Study of Performance and Emissions Parameters of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Micro Emulsion of Jatropha Oil and Ethanol

The use of alternative fuel has many advantages and the main ones are its renewability, biodegradability with better quality exhaust gas emission, which do not contribute to raise the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The use of non-edible vegetables oils as an alternative fuels for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increase in environmental problems. In Asian countries like India, great need of edible oil as a food so cannot use these oils as alternative fuels for diesel engine. However there are many issues related to the use of vegetable oils in diesel engine that is high viscosity, low calorific value, high self-ignition temperature etc. Jatropha curcas has been promoted in India as a sustainable substitute to diesel fuel. This research prepared micro emulsions of ethanol and Jatropha vegetable oil in different ratio and find out the physico-chemical parameters to compare with mineral diesel oil.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional CFD Analysis on Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Bluff Tractor Trailer Body using Vortex Generators

This paper presents a CFD analysis for drag reduction of a Class 8 Tractor-Trailer arrangement. A three dimensional bluff body model of the truck is simulated for a zero degree yaw angle at a speed of 50 miles per hour for a Reynolds Number of 3.3 million. In this paper, the role of vortex generators is investigated for overall drag reduction of the body. The key areas of interest for lowering the drag coefficient are the tractor-trailer gap and the trailer end. The designing of the body was done on DS SolidWorks whereas the CFD simulations were performed on commercial software Ansys Fluent. The Standard k-ε turbulence model was chosen for the simulation while the convergence criterion for the residuals was set at 10−6. The simple bluff body showed a drag coefficient of 1.654. The first design iteration involved increasing the tractor frontal area which resulted in a reduction of 4% in the drag coefficient.
Technical Paper

Potential Utilization of CNG in Stationary HCCI Engine

Internal combustion engines are extensively used in every field of life in today's world. Diesel engines being more efficient are preferred in the industrial and transportation sector in comparison to spark ignition engines for their higher efficiency, versatility and ruggedness. The major emissions of diesel engines are oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO). Among these emissions, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and the particulate matter are the reasons of serious concern. For reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter simultaneously, the use of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) have provided a sustainable solution in the present scenario. Further, the use of CNG in HCCI engine along with pilot diesel injection; the emissions have been decreased drastically. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Performance Analyses of Diesel Engine at Different Injection Angles Using Water Diesel Emulsion

Globally, transportation is the second largest energy consuming sector after the industrial sector and is completely dependent on petroleum products and alternative technologies. So, fossil fuel consumption for energy requirement is a primary concern and can be addressed with the fuel consumption reduction technologies. Transportation sector is mainly using diesel engines because of production of high thermal efficiency and higher torque at lower RPM. Therefore, diesel consumption should be targeted for future energy security and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines. Some of the fuel, which includes biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions etc. Among which the diesel water emulsion (DWE) is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of an SI Engine Fueled with Methanol-Gasoline and Ethanol-Gasoline Blend with Hydrogen Boosting

Dependency and increase in use of fossil fuels is leading to its depletion and raises serious environmental concerns. There are international obligations to reduce emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply which is pressuring the automobile industry to use cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen fits these criteria as it is not just an abundant alternative but also a clean propellant and Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells. In the present investigation, EGR has been used on hydrogen boosted SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation and gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends without EGR.
Technical Paper

Performance Based Optimization of Intake and Injection Parameters of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

The increment in the application of fossil fuels is leading the world into a catastrophic state both environmentally and economically. Current demand for fuels exceeds its imminent supply and rather sooner than later energy demands will have to shift towards non-conventional fuels to cope with the situation. With constant developments in the automotive sector, several solutions have been found but none have been as good as gasoline to substitute it in the commercial market. One such solution being compressed air might solve this global fuel crisis, which serves a glowing advantage of being cheaper and greener as it produces zero tail-pipe emissions, and can help in decreasing automobile’s contribution to global warming. Though the potential energy stored in the compressed air limits its application to light duty vehicles and still there will be a need for other alternative solutions for the heavy duty vehicles in order to relieve the pressure from the fossil fuels.
Technical Paper

A CFD Investigation of Aerodynamic Effects of Wheel Center Geometry on Brake Cooling

Improving brake cooling has commanded substantial research in the automotive sector, as safety remains paramount in vehicles of which brakes are a crucial component. To prevent problems like brake fade and brake judder, heat dissipation should be maximized from the brakes to limit increasing temperatures. This research is a CFD investigation into the impact of existing wheel center designs on brake cooling through increased cross flow through the wheel. The new study brings together the complete wheel and disc geometries in a single CFD study and directly measures the effect on brake cooling, by implementing more accurately modeled boundary conditions like moving ground to replicate real conditions correctly. It also quantifies the improvement in the cooling rate of the brake disc with a change in wheel design, unlike previous studies. The axial flow discharge was found to be increased to 0.47 m3/min for the suggested design in comparison to 0.04 m3/min for traditional design.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel-Alcohol-Diesel Blends Fuelled in VCR Engine

The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium-large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Enhancement in Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine by Adding Alloy Nanoparticle

Enhancement of combustion behavior of conventional liquid fuel using nanoscale materials of different properties is an imaginative and futuristic topic. This experiment is aimed to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine when lade with nanoparticles of Cu-Zn alloy. The previous work reported the effect of metal/metal oxide or heterogeneous mixture of two or more particles; less work had been taken to analyze the homogeneous mixture of metals. This paper includes fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value and performance measures like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emission analysis of NOX, CO, CO2, HC. For the same solid concentration, nano-fuel is compared with base fuel at different engine loads; and its effect when lade at different concentrations.
Technical Paper

Tribological Performance of Lubricating Oil Contaminated with Fine Dust Particles

The economics of operating internal combustion engines in cars, buses and other automotive equipment is heavily affected by friction and wear losses caused by abrasive contaminants. As such, dust is a universal pollutant of lubricating oils. Road dust consists of depositions from vehicular and industrial exhausts, tire and brake wear, dust from paved roads or potholes, and from construction sites. Present research investigates the influence of dust powder of size 5 μm-100 μm as contaminant in SAE 20W-40 lubricant on the relative motion of a plane surface over the other having circular surface in contact. A pin-on-disk setup as per ASTM G99 has been used to conduct the experiments, firstly at increasing rpm keeping constant load of 118 N, and secondly by increasing loads, keeping rpm constant at 1000. The contaminated lubricant has been used to study its influence on friction and wear rate at the interface of pin of 12 mm diameter and disk at track diameter of 98 mm.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Flap Camber and Ground Clearance in Double-Element Inverted Airfoils

Drag and lift are the primary aerodynamic forces experienced by automobiles. In competitive automotive racing, the design of inverted wings has been the subject of much research aimed at improving the performance of vehicles. In this direction, the aerodynamic impact of change in maximum camber of the flap element and ground effect in a double-element inverted airfoil was studied. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4412 airfoil was taken as the constant main element. The camber of the flap element was varied from 0% to 9%, while ground clearance was varied from 0.1c to 1.0c. A two-dimensional (2D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study was performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model in ANSYS Fluent 18.2 to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Parameters such as drag coefficient, lift coefficient, pressure distribution, and wake flow field were investigated to present the optimum airfoil configuration for high downforce and low drag.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fender Coverage Angle on the Aerodynamic Drag of a Bicycle

While riding cycles, cyclists usually experience an aerodynamic drag force. Over the years, there has been a global effort to reduce the aerodynamic drag of a cycle. Fenders affect the aerodynamic drag of a cycle to a large extent, and fender coverage has a pronounced effect on the same. In this article, various fender coverage angles, varying from 60° to 270°, were studied to predict the aerodynamic drag with the help of a validated CFD model in SolidWorks Flow Simulation. The model was based on the Favre-Averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equations solved using the k-ɛ model. It was predicted that aerodynamic drag coefficient reduced fender coverage angle up to 135°, and thereafter started increasing. Analyses were carried out at velocities of 6 m/s, 8 m/s and 10 m/s and the results were found to be similar, with a minimum aerodynamic drag coefficient at 135° occurring in all the cases under study.
Technical Paper

Transient Analysis of Natural Convection around a Pair of Circular Cylinders inside a Square Enclosure

Heat exchangers are widely used in various transportation, industrial, or domestic applications such as thermal power plants, means of heating, transporting and air conditioning systems, electronic equipment and space vehicles. In all these applications improvements in the efficiency of the heat exchangers can lead to substantial cost, space and material savings. Hence considerable research work has been done in the past to seek effective ways to improve the efficiency of heat exchangers. In this paper the effect of natural convection is justified between exterior solid wall surfaces and the surrounding air inside the enclosure. Designing of electronic devices, heavy industrial equipments such as boilers, turbines etc. and building aerodynamics are some of the real world application associated with this study.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Single Seat, Four Wheeled All-Terrain Vehicle for Baja Collegiate Design Series

There has been a rapid increase in popularity of multipurpose All-terrain vehicles (ATV) across the globe over the past few years. SAE BAJA event gives student-community an opportunity to delve deeper into the nitty-gritty of designing a single seat, four-wheeled off road vehicle. The design and development methodology presented in this paper is useful in conceptualization of an ATV for SAE BAJA event. The vehicle is divided into various subsystems including chassis, suspension, drive train, steering, and braking system. Further these subsystems are designed and comprehensively analyzed in software like SolidWorks, ANSYS, WINGEO and MS-Excel. The 3-D model of roll cage is designed in SolidWorks and analyzed in ANSYS 9.0 for front, rear and side impact along with front and side roll-over conditions. Special case of wheel bump is also analyzed. Weight, wall thickness and bending strength of tubing used for roll cage are comprehensively studied.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated Hydrogen Port Injection Kit for Small Engines

The danger posed by climate change and the striving for securities of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man's energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
Technical Paper

Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Propan-2-ol and Gasoline Fuel Blends in an Unmodified Spark Ignition Engine

In view of the rapid depletion, increasing prices and uneven distribution of conventional petroleum fuels; the interest in the use of alternative fuels has increased exponentially. Fuels such as biodiesel & alcohol have been evaluated both at experimental and commercial scale due to improved emission characteristics as compared to conventional fuels. Alcohols are oxygenated and result in improving the engine performance. As a blend with conventional gasoline, the alcohols enhance the premixed and diffusive combustion phase which improves the combustion efficiency. The present investigation evaluates studies on stability and homogeneity along with physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, calorific value, copper-strip corrosion and solubility at room temperature of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends. Comprehensive engine trials on unmodified petrol engine fuelled with blends of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends in the proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume have been conducted.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Emission Characteristics of the CI Engine Fuelled by Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Diesel Blends

The power generation, agriculture, and transportation sectors are dominated by diesel engines due to better thermal efficiency and durability. Diesel engines are also a major contributor to the air pollutants such as NOx and particulate matter. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is considered a promising alternative fuel as it emits less pollutants compared to conventional fuels. In current work, the ABE used was of the ratio (3:6:1) and four samples were prepared for engine trial ABE (10%90%diesel), ABE (20%80%diesel), ABE (30%70%diesel) and ABE (40%60%diesel). Their physio-chemical properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity and calorific value were checked and tested on compression ignition engine at different operating parameters. The experimental work was conducted upon Kirloskar 4-stroke single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled 661cc compression ignition engine at different speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies on Mechanical Properties of Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Natural Fibres Ashes

Metal matrix composites have a large range of applications in the automobile industry due to its characteristics and properties. Al-based MMC have aluminum as matrix metal that has properties which are well concerned with the automobile industry. Some of these properties are high strength to weight ratio and lightweight. In this paper we are trying to develop aluminum-based metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with natural fibers ashes, we are using fine ashes of Sugarcane (bagasse), Groundnut Shell Ash (GSA), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Coconut shell (Jute) ash, different effects are investigated for different percentage of reinforcing material which is being produced by burning in a free atmosphere. Ball milling is used for making fine particle size of different natural fibers ash. Nine samples were made by the stir casting process consisting of Al6063 as base metal and different concentration of reinforcement.
Technical Paper

Studying Synthesis of Thermally and Chemically Modified Plant Oil and their Tribological Evaluation for Use as a Base Stock for Environmentally Friendly Bio-Lubricant

The world today is facing severe oil crisis and environmental pollution, thus there is a great urgency of developing and applying bio based products as a substitute to mineral oil based products. Rapid industrialization and automation in the last decade has increased the demand of mineral oil based lubricant that will get exhausted in the years to come. Also in addition to the above fact, the biodegradability of mineral-oil based lubricants is around 25% maximum. About 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the Environment. Due to extensive use of mineral oil based lubricants, several environmental issues such as surface water and groundwater contamination, Air pollution, soil contamination, agricultural product and food contamination are emerging very rapidly. This has led the researchers to look for plant oil based bio- lubricant as an alternative to mineral oil based lubricant.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Deodar Oil Using Response Surface Methodology [RSM]

Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, or FAME) can be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines which is produced by the chemical reaction of vegetable oil or animal fat with an alcohol such as ethanol or methanol in the presence of a catalyst. The growing interest in biodiesel is because of the similarity in its properties when compared with the diesel fuel as well as various benefits it provides such as lower soot emissions, less dependency on crude oil, etc. The optimization of experimental parameters, such as catalyst concentration, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, and reaction time, on the transesterification for the production of deodar methyl ester was performed in this article. Optimization of the transesterification process of deodar oil was achieved by a three-factorial central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) in 20 experimental runs. The RSM was performed to determine the optimum operating conditions and to optimize the biodiesel yield.