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Technical Paper

Energy Harvesting as Strategy for Reducing Vehicles Emissions

2012-10-02
2012-36-0114
In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”.
Technical Paper

Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

2012-10-02
2012-36-0262
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables.
Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

2010-10-06
2010-36-0160
One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Journal Article

Ignition Systems for Spray-Guided Stratified Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0598
The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems.
Technical Paper

An Expandable Passive Optical Star Network Architecture for Automotive Applications

1999-03-01
1999-01-0303
When comparing vehicle communication architectures, the passive star network has been shown to be the highest fault tolerant system. Despite this trait, the passive star architecture has not been widely implemented due to its potential application limitations: insufficient node count and relatively short node lengths. These constraints arise from the basic function of the star, i.e. to evenly distribute a given amount of optical power to all nodes connected to the star without amplification or retransmission. This paper provides a solution to overcome the limitations of the passive star through the introduction of a new communication component, the Active Distribution Node (ADN). The ADN enables a passive star network to support larger node counts and significantly longer node lengths, without sacrificing fault tolerance or the low cost nature of the basic passive star architecture.
Technical Paper

Analytical Solution for Heat Flow in Cylinder and Its Application in Calculating Converter Skin Temperature

2000-03-06
2000-01-0301
In the catalytic converter, the thermal conductivity of the insulation material (intumescent mat) placed between the ceramic catalyst and the metal shell is strongly dependent on the temperature, resulting in the solving of non-linear heat conduction equations. In this paper, the analytic solution for the steady heat flow in a cylinder with temperature dependent conductivity is given. Using this analytic solution for the mat and including convection and radiation at the converter skin, an analytical expression for calculating converter skin temperature is obtained. This expression can be easily incorporated in a Fortran code to calculate the temperatures.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Air Meter Interface Strategies for Engine Management Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0546
When an air meter is specified for an engine management system, air meter accuracy is given high priority. Air meter manufacturers characterize the accuracy of their products using laboratory instrumentation to measure the air meter output vs. flow characteristics. Ultimately the air meter is applied to an engine management system in a vehicle. The engine management system must use the information provided by the air meter without the benefit of laboratory instrumentation. Therefore, the entire measurement system must be considered in evaluating the effective accuracy. The most fundamental aspect to consider is the output signal format between the air meter and the engine management system. Two commonly available formats will be investigated: frequency and voltage.
Technical Paper

Delphi Electronic Throttle Control Systems for Model Year 2000;Driver Features, System Security, and OEM Benefits. ETC for the Mass Market

2000-03-06
2000-01-0556
Delphi has developed a second-generation Electronic Throttle Control system optimized for high volume applications. The Delphi system integrates several unique driver performance features, extensive security/diagnostics, and provides significant benefits for the vehicle manufacturer. For Model Year 2000, the Delphi ETC system has been successfully implemented on several popular SUVs and passenger cars built and sold around the world. The ETC driver features, security systems, and manufacturer benefits are presented as implemented on these Model Year 2000 applications.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Lead-Free Solder for Automotive Electronics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0017
Lead-free solders for electronics have been actively pursued since the early 1990's here and abroad for environmental, legislative, and competitive reasons. The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS-US)1, the International Tin Research Institute (ITRI-UK)2, Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research (IVF-Sweden)3, Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging (JIEP Japan)4, Improved Design Life and Environmentally Aware Manufacture of Electronics Assemblies by Lead-free Soldering (IDEALS-Europe)5, and, more recently, the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI-US)6 have been aggressively seeking lead-free solutions The automotive industry has some unique requirements that demand extensive testing of new materials and processes prior to implementation. The specific steps taken at Delphi Automotive Systems with lead-free solder will be described along with the lessons learned along the way.
Technical Paper

Flow Simulation of a Direct-Injection Gasoline Diaphragm Fuel Pump with Structural Interactions

2000-03-06
2000-01-1047
The fluid flow in a direct-injection gasoline diaphragm fuel pump is analyzed using a multi-physics simulation program. The analysis accounts for fully coupled fluid-structure interactions (FSI), the effects of the diaphragm movement and its deformation, the FSI between the diaphragm and the fluid, the FSI between the inlet/outlet valves and the fluid, and the solid-solid contact between the inlet/outlet valves and the valve seats. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds is examined. The accuracy of the predictions for the flow rate of the fuel pump is assessed through comparisons with the experimental data, and moderately good agreement is obtained. In addition, some conclusions based on this study are summarized for reference.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Fast Light-Off Planar Oxygen Sensor Application for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0888
It is well known that hydrocarbon reduction during a cold start is a major issue in achieving ultra low emissions standards. This paper describes one of the possible approaches for reducing the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions by using a fast “light-off” planar oxygen sensor. The goal of this study was to verify the operation characteristics of Delphi's fast “light-off” planar oxygen sensor's (INTELLEK OSP) operating characteristics and the closed-loop performance for achieving improved hydrocarbon control for stringent emission standards. Tests were conducted in open-loop and closed-loop mode under steady and transient conditions using a 1996 model year 2.4-liter DOHC in-line 4-cylinder engine with a close-coupled catalytic converter. Overall performance of the OSP showed relatively quick reaction time to reach the operating temperature.
Technical Paper

The Assembly Deformation and Pressure of Stuffed Catalytic Converter Accounting for the Hysteresis Behavior of Pressure vs Density Curve of the Intumescent Mat

2000-03-06
2000-01-0223
Accurately predicting converter assembly deformation and mat pressure is essential in converter packaging design and manufacturing. In stuffing packaging, the annulus between the deformed shell and the catalyst is larger than that between the stuffing cone and the catalyst. As a result, the mat expands and undergoes unloading process. Tests show that the mat exhibits different loading and unloading characteristics. Using such a hysteresis mat pressure vs density curve in finite element analysis, the computed converter deformations closely agree with test data. Conversly, neglecting the mat hysteresis behavior may overestimate the deformation and pressure by a factor of three to four.
Technical Paper

Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

2015-04-14
2015-01-0715
Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
Technical Paper

Implications of 3-D Internal Flow Simulation on the Design of Inward-Opening Pressure-Swirl Injectors

2002-10-21
2002-01-2698
A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

Dual-Voltage Electrical System with a Fuel Cell Power Unit

2000-08-21
2000-01-3067
Fuel cells show great promise in generating electrical power for a variety of uses. In the automotive realm, one focus has been on the use of fuel cells for primary vehicle propulsion. Another emerging application is the fuel cell as the primary provider of electrical power to the vehicle, augmenting or replacing the traditional alternator, while producing higher power levels. The advantage of the fuel cell in this role is that the fuel cell operation is de-coupled from that of the engine. High power levels can be achieved independent of engine speed and power can be produced without the engine running. This paper examines the application of a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) to a dual-voltage 42V/14V automotive electrical system meeting the evolving 42V PowerNet specifications. An architecture for this electrical system is presented, followed by a sizing analysis to properly match the fuel cell stack to the voltage of the PowerNet and to a 42V battery pack.
Technical Paper

Batteries for 42/14 Volt Automotive Electrical Systems

2000-08-21
2000-01-3065
The automotive industry is moving to a higher voltage for the electrical system. This change will occur because the total electrical power required by the vehicles will increase to a level where the current requirements at 14 volts will be impractical. Some of the new loads will change the duty cycle of the battery. The most notable change is the proposed start/stop mode of vehicle operation where the engine is stopped and restarted frequently to avoid prolonged operation at idle. An additional feature would be to use an electric motor to assist in acceleration and/or to actually launch the vehicle. This paper addresses the changes in battery requirements brought on by these new features. A means of analysis for choosing the appropriate battery technology is presented. We also propose a life test to establish a benchmark for current battery technology when it is used in a new duty cycle.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

2000-10-16
2000-01-2899
Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Stability with Engine Drag Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-1217
This paper describes the development and implementation of an Engine Drag Control algorithm to improve vehicle stability performance. Engine drag can occur on low and high coefficient surfaces when the driver suddenly releases the throttle. If the engine drag force becomes larger than the frictional force between the tire and the road, the tires will break loose from the surface and slip. This could induce vehicle instability especially with rear drive vehicles on low-coefficient surfaces. The EDC algorithm has been developed to provide accurate control of the wheels. EDC will help reduce the yaw rate of the vehicle and thus achieve greater vehicle stability. The paper also presents methods used to test the robustness of such a system. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that there would be no false activations of EDC under normal driving conditions and also to ensure that, when the system is active, it is mostly transparent to the driver.
Technical Paper

Development Experience with Steer-by-Wire

2001-08-20
2001-01-2479
Recent advances in dependable embedded system technology, as well as continuing demand for improved handling and passive and active safety improvements, have led vehicle manufacturers and suppliers to actively pursue development programs in computer-controlled, by-wire subsystems. These subsystems include steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire, and are composed of mechanically de-coupled sets of actuators and controllers connected through multiplexed, in-vehicle computer networks; there is no mechanical link to the driver. This paper addresses fundamental benefits and issues of steer-by-wire, especially those related to automated vehicle control and steering feel quality as perceived by the driver.
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