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Technical Paper

A Model-based Environment for Production Engine Management System (EMS) Development

2001-03-05
2001-01-0554
This paper describes an environment for the development of production Engine Management Systems (EMS). This includes a formal framework and modeling methodology. The environment is based on using Simulink/Stateflow for developing a control system executable specification and a plant model. This allows for simulations of the system to be performed at the engineer's desk, which is identical performance with production software. We provide the details for incorporating production legacy code into the Simulink/Stateflow control system. The system includes a multi-rate, and event driven operating system. This system is developed to facilitate new algorithm development and automated software testing. Based on Simulink/Stateflow this specification will be suitable for use with commercial automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Brake Pressure Estimation Strategy for Traction Control System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0595
This paper presents a brake pressure estimation algorithm for Delphi Traction Control Systems (TCS). A control oriented lumped parameter model of a brake control system is developed using Matlab/Simulink. The model is derived based on a typical brake system and is generic to other types of brake control hardware systems. For application purposes, the model is simplified to capture the dominant dynamic brake pressure response. Vehicle experimental data collected under various scenarios are used to validate the algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm gives accurate pressure estimation. In addition, the calibration procedure is greatly simplified
Technical Paper

Reliability of Resonant Micromachined Sensors and Actuators

2001-03-05
2001-01-0618
There are an increasing number of applications for resonant micromachines. Accelerometers, angular rate sensors, voltage controlled oscillators, pressure and chemical sensors have been demonstrated using this technology. Several of these devices are employed in vehicles. Vibrating devices have been made from silicon, quartz, GaAs, nickel and aluminum. Resonant microsystems are in constant motion and so present new challenges in the area of reliability for vehicular applications. The impact of temperature extremes, cyclic fatigue, stiction, thermal and mechanical shock on resonant device performance is covered.
Technical Paper

LIN Bus and its Potential for Use in Distributed Multiplex Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0072
The increasing features and complexity of today's automotive architectures are becoming increasingly difficult to manage. Each new innovation typically requires additional mechanical actuators and associated electrical controllers. The sheer number of black boxes and wiring are being limited not by features or cost but by the inability to physically assemble them into a vehicle. A new architecture is required which will support the ability to add new features but also enable the Vehicle Assembly Plants to easily assemble and test each subsystem. One such architecture is a distributed multiplex arrangement that reduces the number of wires while enabling flexibility and expandability. Previous versions have had to deal with issues such as noise immunity at high switching currents. The LIN Bus with its low cost and rail-to-rail capability may be the key enabling technology to make the multiplexed architecture a reality.
Technical Paper

Consumers, Electronics, and the Link to Hybrid Vehicles and the Environment

2000-11-01
2000-01-C045
The interdependence of consumer features, new electronic and electrical architectures and hybrid propulsion systems are examined. There are two major forces driving future vehicle electronic and electrical systems, one is consumer demand for comfort and safety, and two is the demand for reduced fuel consumption and emissions. These forces are linked by the use of electronics to control vehicle energy generation and usage while providing managed solutions to these demands. Automobile consumer features are discussed and the case is made that these features will require more electric power to be installed on the vehicle. The presence of this increased electric power will then enable the hybrid vehicle functions that will benefit fuel economy and emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Simulation and Sensor Development for Occupant Protection in Rollover Accidents

2000-11-01
2000-01-C038
Automotive occupant safety continues to evolve. At present this area has gathered a strong consumer interest which the vehicle manufacturers are tapping into with the introduction of many new safety technologies. Initially, individual passive devices and features such as seatbelts, knee- bolsters, structural crush zones, airbags etc., were developed for to help save lives and minimize injuries in accidents. Over the years, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction etc., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. With tremendous new research and improvements in electronics, we are at the stage of helping to actively avoid accidents in certain situations as well as providing increased protection to vehicle occupants and pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Smart Sensors for Future Robust Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C055
"Smart'' sensor concepts must be considered as the demands of advanced automotive systems increase. These concepts are strongly influenced by the architectural and dependability aspects of future systems. Key features of smart sensors are: communication (two way) with a digital data bus, self- calibration, error source compensation, self-diagnostics, and programmability for "plug and play.'' This paper contains a discussion of the basic future sensor requirements, and it assesses four major sensor technologies with respect to their suitability to meet these requirements. For each technology, the merits and demerits will be reviewed and an example sensing application will be given in order to demonstrate how the technology can be adapted to meet the future requirements.
Technical Paper

Dependable E/E System Drivers and Application Issues

2000-11-01
2000-01-C064
Today, electrical/electronic systems like ABS/power brakes and electric power steering are all designed to enhance, not replace a mechanical function. If an electrical or electronic fault occurs, the function reverts to the base mechanical capability. Future E/E systems, such as steer-by-wire and brake-by- wire replace mechanical linkages with electrical or optical signals as in computer networks. While these systems offer many potential safety benefits, they will require different strategies for dependability, and as with any vehicle system, they will further require that dependability be an integral part of the overall E/E system design. This paper illustrates how by-wire systems drive different dependability requirements and discusses some key technologies that are emerging to meet these requirements.
Technical Paper

Maximum Electrical Energy Availability With Reasonable Components

2000-11-01
2000-01-C071
The electric power required in automotive systems is quickly reaching a level that significantly impacts costs and fuel consumption. This drives the need to reconsider an electric energy management function. Fast evolving factors such as increasing power usage, and stricter engine management and reliability requirements necessitate a global vehicle approach to energy management. Innovations such as new powernet concepts (42 volt or dual voltage systems), new component technologies (high-performance energy storage, high efficiency and controllable generators), and global electronic and software architecture concepts will enable this new energy management concept. This paper describes key issues to maximize energy availability with reasonable components.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Hazard Analysis Technique for Safety-Critical Automotive Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0674
Hazard analysis plays an important role in the development of safety-critical systems. Hazard analysis techniques have been used in the development of conventional automotive systems. However, as future automotive systems become more sophisticated in functionality, design, and applied technology, the need for a more comprehensive hazard analysis approach has arisen. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive hazard analysis approach for system safety programs. This comprehensive approach involves applying a number of hazard analysis techniques and then integrating their results. This comprehensive approach attempts to overcome the narrower scope of individual techniques while obtaining the benefits of all of them.
Technical Paper

Rapid Algorithm Development Tools Applied to Engine Management Systems

1998-02-23
980799
Intense competition in the automotive industry requires continuous reduction in innovation cycle time, even as corporations are downsizing and system complexity is increasing. Subsequently, the application of recently introduced Rapid Algorithm Development (RAD) tools has facilitated significant advances in the development of embedded control systems. The RAD steps include system modeling, control algorithm design, simulation analysis, automated calibration design, and vehicle implementation through automatic code generation. The application of RAD tools and the associated benefits are described, specifically in the context of Engine Management Systems (EMS). Such benefits include significant reductions in development cycle time, open architecture, automated calibration, and information reuse.
Technical Paper

Thermally-Induced Microstructural Changes in a Three-Way Automotive Catalyst

1997-10-01
972905
The use of advanced electron microscopy techniques to characterize both the bulk and near-atomic level microstructural evolution of catalyst materials during different dynamometer/vehicle aging cycles is an integral part of understanding catalyst deactivation. The study described here was undertaken to evaluate thermally-induced microstructural changes which caused the progressive loss of catalyst performance in a three-way automotive catalyst. Several different catalyst processing variables, for example changing the washcoat ceria content, were also evaluated as a function of aging cycle and thermal history. A number of thermally-induced microstructural changes were identified using high resolution electron microscopy techniques that contributed to the deactivation of the catalyst, including sintering of all washcoat constituents, γ-alumina transforming to α-, β-, and δ-alumina, precious metal redistribution, and constituent encapsulation.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-1080
CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

2010-10-06
2010-36-0160
One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Software Quality Improvements using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS)

2008-10-07
2008-36-0325
Short timing and complexes strategies are mandatory in a competitive market as automotive industry. Therefore quality problems identification during and after the coding phase, may be the difference between the business success and undesired conflicts with customer, solving problems that were not previously identified. Consequently the usage of technique Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) to analyze coding metrics, create an environment to improve the final product quality and mitigate potential problems later identified.
Technical Paper

Laser Welding: An Exploratory Study towards Continuous Improvement on Stainless Steel Welding Joints

2009-10-06
2009-36-0330
The utilization of Laser welding process has increased during last years in several areas of industry, due to many benefits that can be achieved with this technology, such as: flexibility, productivity and quality. Thus, the optimization of Laser welding processes has been considered as a “green field” to be explored by Laser manufacturers, automation companies and process/project engineers. Nowadays there are few researches that provide a roadmap for Laser welding processes improvement that approaches both the aspects and characteristics applied to evaluate the Laser weld application performance. Therefore, this paper has per its main purpose through an exploratory study to provide parameters toward continuous improvement of Laser welding process considering both types of Lasers: Laser spot weld and Laser seam weld of stainless steel joints, thus this work may be considered as theoretical and practical reference to be applied by people involved with Laser welding applications.
Technical Paper

Resistance Welding for Automotive Wiring Harness Connection - Small Gauge Cables

2012-10-02
2012-36-0153
Miniaturization is an important trend in many technology segments, once it can enable innovative applications generating new markets. This trend was begun in electronics industry after World War II and has spawned changes into automotive sector also. For Automotive Wiring Harness, miniaturization is clearly presented in most of the components, mainly because of its benefits like the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Furthermore the main voice of customer points to cable gauge reduction that represents a considerable challenge for connection manufacturing process due to quality control limitations presented by conventional crimp process for 0,35 [mm₂] cables and smaller. According to that, the scope of this article is to present, in details, a manufacturing process optimization for an alternative and more robust technology of joining copper stranded cables to tin brass terminals used on automotive wiring harness, Resistance Welding.
Technical Paper

Energy Harvesting as Strategy for Reducing Vehicles Emissions

2012-10-02
2012-36-0114
In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”.
Technical Paper

Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

2012-10-02
2012-36-0262
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables.
Technical Paper

Thermal Electric Analysis of Bond Wires Used in Automotive Electronic Modules

2015-04-14
2015-01-0195
Bond wires are used in automotive electronic modules to carry current from external harness to components where flexibility under thermal cyclic loading is very essential between PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and connectors. They are very thin wires (few μm) made up of gold, aluminum or copper and have to undergo mechanical reliability to withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads during different vehicle operation scenarios. Thermal reliability of bond wire is to make sure that it can withstand prescribed electric current under given boundary conditions without fusing thereby retaining electronic module's functionality. While carrying current, bond wire by virtue of its nature resists electric current flow and generates heat also called as joule heating. Joule heating is proportional to current flow and electrical resistance and if not handled properly can lead to thermal run away conditions.
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