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Technical Paper

Consumers, Electronics, and the Link to Hybrid Vehicles and the Environment

2000-11-01
2000-01-C045
The interdependence of consumer features, new electronic and electrical architectures and hybrid propulsion systems are examined. There are two major forces driving future vehicle electronic and electrical systems, one is consumer demand for comfort and safety, and two is the demand for reduced fuel consumption and emissions. These forces are linked by the use of electronics to control vehicle energy generation and usage while providing managed solutions to these demands. Automobile consumer features are discussed and the case is made that these features will require more electric power to be installed on the vehicle. The presence of this increased electric power will then enable the hybrid vehicle functions that will benefit fuel economy and emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-1080
CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Energy Harvesting as Strategy for Reducing Vehicles Emissions

2012-10-02
2012-36-0114
In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”.
Technical Paper

Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

2012-10-02
2012-36-0262
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables.
Technical Paper

Powertrains of the Future: Reducing the Impact of Transportation on the Environment

1999-03-01
1999-01-0991
Tomorrow's winning powertrain solutions reside in those technology combinations providing optimized propulsion systems with zero emissions and no cost or performance penalty compared with today's vehicles. The recent Kyoto Protocol for CO2 reduction and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) thrust for zero emission vehicles along with the European Regulatory community, motivate car manufacturers to adopt new light body structures with low aerodynamic drag coefficients, low-rolling resistance and the highest efficiency powertrains. The environmental equation expresses car manufacturers aptitude and desire to create zero emission vehicles at acceptable levels of performance unlike limited range electrical powered vehicle products. The cheapest solution to the environmental equation remains the conventional internal combustion engine ($30 to $50 per kW).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Propulsion Drive System Technologies for Hybrid Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1532
This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of high risk, high potential technologies for hybrid vehicle drive applications and investigate potential solutions for the technical risk items associated with these technologies. The study consisted of the design, build, and test of different types of electric machines to understand their performance, efficiency, and manufacturability to develop hybrid vehicles with cost and performance similar to the present day IC engine based vehicles, but with lower emissions and better fuel economy. Machine technologies examined include synchronous reluctance, permanent magnet, and switched reluctance. Test data for various machine technologies is presented along with a discussion of the technical risk associated with each technology.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Hybrid Powertrain Strategies

2001-08-20
2001-01-2501
Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential to reduce air pollution and improve fuel economy without sacrificing the present conveniences of long range and available infrastructure that conventional vehicles offer. Hybrid vehicles are generally classified as series or parallel hybrids. A series hybrid vehicle is essentially an electric vehicle with an on-board source of power for charging the batteries. In a parallel hybrid vehicle, the engine and the electric motor can be used to drive the vehicle simultaneously. There are various possible configurations of parallel hybrid vehicles depending on the role of the electric motor/generator and the engine. In this paper, a comparative study of the drivetrains of five different hybrid vehicles is presented. The underlying design architectures are examined, with analysis as to the tradeoffs and advantages represented in these architectures.
Technical Paper

Global Hybrid Electric Vehicle Markets and Missions

1999-08-17
1999-01-2946
Most large automobile manufacturers are considering adding hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) to their product portfolio for environmental reasons. Some, like Toyota, Nissan and Honda, have already begun producing or have plans for producing hybrids. Skeptics in the industry see these efforts as mostly intended to enhance the automaker's environmental image at a cost that is not recoverable in the marketplace. Few in the automotive industry claim a sound economic basis for hybrids, and furthermore are repelled by the disruption of existing systems they promise. To test the validity of the industry's generally negative view of HEV economics, this paper establishes a logical, mission-based classification for HEV system architecture and performs a present value analysis for the three classes.
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