Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 18 of 18
Technical Paper

Reliability of Resonant Micromachined Sensors and Actuators

2001-03-05
2001-01-0618
There are an increasing number of applications for resonant micromachines. Accelerometers, angular rate sensors, voltage controlled oscillators, pressure and chemical sensors have been demonstrated using this technology. Several of these devices are employed in vehicles. Vibrating devices have been made from silicon, quartz, GaAs, nickel and aluminum. Resonant microsystems are in constant motion and so present new challenges in the area of reliability for vehicular applications. The impact of temperature extremes, cyclic fatigue, stiction, thermal and mechanical shock on resonant device performance is covered.
Technical Paper

LIN Bus and its Potential for Use in Distributed Multiplex Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0072
The increasing features and complexity of today's automotive architectures are becoming increasingly difficult to manage. Each new innovation typically requires additional mechanical actuators and associated electrical controllers. The sheer number of black boxes and wiring are being limited not by features or cost but by the inability to physically assemble them into a vehicle. A new architecture is required which will support the ability to add new features but also enable the Vehicle Assembly Plants to easily assemble and test each subsystem. One such architecture is a distributed multiplex arrangement that reduces the number of wires while enabling flexibility and expandability. Previous versions have had to deal with issues such as noise immunity at high switching currents. The LIN Bus with its low cost and rail-to-rail capability may be the key enabling technology to make the multiplexed architecture a reality.
Technical Paper

Smart Sensors for Future Robust Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C055
"Smart'' sensor concepts must be considered as the demands of advanced automotive systems increase. These concepts are strongly influenced by the architectural and dependability aspects of future systems. Key features of smart sensors are: communication (two way) with a digital data bus, self- calibration, error source compensation, self-diagnostics, and programmability for "plug and play.'' This paper contains a discussion of the basic future sensor requirements, and it assesses four major sensor technologies with respect to their suitability to meet these requirements. For each technology, the merits and demerits will be reviewed and an example sensing application will be given in order to demonstrate how the technology can be adapted to meet the future requirements.
Technical Paper

Development of Electrical-Electronic Controls for a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0614
Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project. In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI.
Technical Paper

Flawless Manufacturing of RACam through XCP Protocol

2016-04-05
2016-01-0047
RACam [1] is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors - Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in a single package. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL). Figure 1 RACam Front View. With an increase in Active Safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for Active Safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize RADAR and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to improve the operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Barometric Pressure Estimator for Production Engine Control and Diagnostics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0206
A Barometric Pressure Estimator (BPE) algorithm was implemented in a production speed-density Engine Management System (EMS). The BPE is a model-based, easily calibrated algorithm for estimating barometric pressure using a standard set of production sensors, thereby avoiding the need for a barometric pressure sensor. An accurate barometric pressure value is necessary for a variety of engine control functions. By starting with the physics describing the flow through the induction system, an algorithm was developed which is simple to understand and implement. When used in conjunction with the Pneumatic and Thermal State Estimator (PSE and TSE) algorithms [2], the BPE requires only a single additional calibration table, generated with an automated processing routine, directly from measured engine data collected at an arbitrary elevation, in-vehicle or on a dynamometer. The algorithm has been implemented on several different engines.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Fuel Control with a Switching Oxygen Sensor

1999-03-01
1999-01-0546
In this paper we discuss in detail an algorithm that addresses cylinder-to-cylinder imbalance issues. Maintaining even equivalence-ratio (ϕ) control across all the cylinders of an engine is confounded by imbalances which include fuel-injector flow variations, fresh-air intake maldistribution and uneven distribution of Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR). Moreover, in markets that are growing increasingly cost conscious, with ever tightening emissions regulations, correcting for such mismatches must not only be done, but done at little or no additional cost. To address this challenge, we developed an Individual Cylinder Fuel Control (ICFC) algorithm that estimates each cylinder's individual ϕ and then compensates to correct for any imbalance using only existing production hardware. Prior work in this area exists1,2, yet all disclosed production-intent work was performed using wide-range oxygen sensors, representing cost increases.
Technical Paper

Electronic Suspension System Control Utilizing ABS System Wheel Speed Sensors

1999-12-01
1999-01-3079
This paper describes a semi-active damping control system that responds in real-time to road and driving conditions based on body motions as determined through ABS wheel speed sensors. The use of these existing sensors for vehicle information eliminates the need for the additional sensors (e.g. accelerometers and body-to-wheel position/velocity sensors) that are commonly part of semi-active suspension systems. This technology also allows for further cost and part count reductions through the combination of the suspension and brake controls into a single electronic control unit. This paper has been previously presented in 1998 at the SAE Controlled Suspension System Toptec.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Fast Light-Off Planar Oxygen Sensor Application for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0888
It is well known that hydrocarbon reduction during a cold start is a major issue in achieving ultra low emissions standards. This paper describes one of the possible approaches for reducing the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions by using a fast “light-off” planar oxygen sensor. The goal of this study was to verify the operation characteristics of Delphi's fast “light-off” planar oxygen sensor's (INTELLEK OSP) operating characteristics and the closed-loop performance for achieving improved hydrocarbon control for stringent emission standards. Tests were conducted in open-loop and closed-loop mode under steady and transient conditions using a 1996 model year 2.4-liter DOHC in-line 4-cylinder engine with a close-coupled catalytic converter. Overall performance of the OSP showed relatively quick reaction time to reach the operating temperature.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oxygen Sensor

2000-03-06
2000-01-1364
Optimization of the mechanical aspects of a heated conical oxygen sensor for desired performances, such as low heater power, good poison resistance, fast light-off, and broad temperature range, etc. was achieved with computer modeling. CFD analysis was used to model the flow field in and around a sensor in an exhaust pipe to predict the convection coefficients, poisoning, and switching time. Heat transfer analysis coupled with electrical heating was applied to predict temperature and light-off time. Results of the optimization are illustrated, with good agreements between modeling and testing.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Lidar-Based and Radar-Based Adaptive Cruise Control Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0345
Since the late 1980s, Delphi Automotive Systems has been very involved with the practical development of a variety of Collision Avoidance products for the near- and long-term automotive market. Many of these complex collision avoidance products will require the integration of various vehicular components/systems in order to provide a cohesive functioning product that is seamlessly integrated into the vehicle infrastructure. One such example of this system integration process was the development of an Adaptive Cruise Control system on an Opel Vectra. The design approach heavily incorporated system engineering processes/procedures. The critical issues and other technical challenges in developing these systems will be explored. Details on the hardware and algorithms developed for this vehicle, as well as the greater systems integration issues that arose during its development will also be presented.
Technical Paper

Advanced Canister Purge Algorithm with a Virtual [HC] sensor

2000-03-06
2000-01-0557
Both evaporative emissions and tailpipe emissions have been reduced by more than 90% from uncontrolled levels in state-of-the-art. However, now that the objective is to reach near-zero emission levels, the need for aggressive purging of the canister and fuel tank and the need for extremely precise control of engine Air/Fuel ratio (A/F) come into conflict. On-board diagnostics and the wide variation in operating conditions and fuel properties in the “real world” add to the challenge of resolving these conflicting requirements. An advanced canister purge algorithm has been developed which substantially eliminates the effect of canister purge on A/F control by estimating and compensating for the fuel and air introduced by the purge system. This paper describes the objectives and function of this algorithm and the validation of its performance.
Technical Paper

Cancellation of Unknown Angular Rate Effects in Linear G Sensitivity Testing for Angular Rate Sensors

2000-03-06
2000-01-0056
A method of canceling unknown angular rate effects in impact immunity measurement for angular rate sensors is presented. A pair of the same type of testing sensors is arranged such that the sensing axes of the sensor pair are 180° out of phase. While an angular rate produces anti-phase component in the sensor outputs, a linear acceleration produces in-phase response from the sensors due to similar mechanical symmetry. This phase difference is used to cancel the angular rate component even though the actual angular rate may still be unknown. This cancellation can be derived from the sensor output transfer function and is supported with our experimental data.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Side Slip Angle and Yaw Rate

2000-03-06
2000-01-0696
An algorithm for estimation of vehicle yaw rate and side slip angle using steering wheel angle, wheel speed, and lateral acceleration sensors is proposed. It is intended for application in vehicle stability enhancement systems, which use controlled brakes or steering. The algorithm first generates two initial estimates of yaw rate from wheel speeds and from lateral acceleration. A new estimate is subsequently calculated as a weighted average of the two initial ones, with the weights proportional to confidence levels in each estimate. This preliminary estimate is fed into a closed loop nonlinear observer, which generates the final estimate of yaw rate along with estimates of lateral velocity and side slip angle. Parameters of the observer depend on the estimated surface coefficient of adhesion, thus providing adaptation to changes in road surface coefficient of adhesion.
Technical Paper

Single Crystal Silicon Low-g Acceleration Sensor

2002-03-04
2002-01-1080
A single-crystal silicon capacitive acceleration sensor for low-g applications has been developed. The sensor element itself is formed entirely from single crystal silicon, giving it exceptional stability over time and temperature and excellent shock resistance. The sensor is produced using low-cost, high volume processing, test and calibration. The sensor integrated circuit (IC) contains a proofmass which moves in response to applied accelerations. The position of the proofmass is capacitively detected and processed by an interface IC. The sensor/interface IC system is packaged in a small outline IC (SOIC) package for printed circuit board mounting. The module is designed to measure full scale accelerations in the 0.75g to 3g range to suit a variety of automotive, industrial and consumer applications
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Strategies for Advanced Automotive Systems

2002-10-21
2002-21-0024
In recent years, the desire for improved vehicle performance, reliability and safety have increased the electrical content and its complexity in vehicles. Advanced automotive systems integrate sensors, controllers, actuators and communication networks. To maintain safety and reliability, a comprehensive system of diagnostics and physical and analytic redundancy are used. In some cases, diagnostic strategies based on analytical redundancy can provide detection, as well as fault-tolerance, and may provide benefits in cost, packaging, flexibility and reusability. This paper discusses a range of diagnostic methods and their applicability to advanced automotive systems such as X-by-Wire. It will also show the reduction to practice of an advanced analytical technique for an automotive application.
Technical Paper

Multi-Sensor Modules with Data Bus Communication Capability

1999-03-01
1999-01-1277
Automotive multi-sensor modules, capable of vehicle-wide communications via a data bus will be discussed. Proper sensor grouping, packaging and device placement are key issues in the implementation of smart sensor modules. Sensors that are candidates for clustering include temperature, acceleration, angular rate, barometric pressure, chemical, and light sensors. The capability to accommodate a variety of data bus communication protocols is required to satisfy the majority of automotive systems. System integration must be considered when employing a smart sensor network through-out an automobile in a cost effective manner. This paper will cover the module issues associated with sensing, packaging, electronics, communication and system integration.
X