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Technical Paper

Energy Harvesting as Strategy for Reducing Vehicles Emissions

2012-10-02
2012-36-0114
In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”.
Technical Paper

Powertrains of the Future: Reducing the Impact of Transportation on the Environment

1999-03-01
1999-01-0991
Tomorrow's winning powertrain solutions reside in those technology combinations providing optimized propulsion systems with zero emissions and no cost or performance penalty compared with today's vehicles. The recent Kyoto Protocol for CO2 reduction and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) thrust for zero emission vehicles along with the European Regulatory community, motivate car manufacturers to adopt new light body structures with low aerodynamic drag coefficients, low-rolling resistance and the highest efficiency powertrains. The environmental equation expresses car manufacturers aptitude and desire to create zero emission vehicles at acceptable levels of performance unlike limited range electrical powered vehicle products. The cheapest solution to the environmental equation remains the conventional internal combustion engine ($30 to $50 per kW).
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Development for an Electric Power Steering System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0819
Electric power steering (EPS) is an advanced steering system that uses an electric motor to provide steering assist. Being a new technology it lacks the extensive operational history of conventional steering systems. Also conventional systems cannot be used to command an output independent of the driver input. In contrast EPS, by means of an electric motor, could be used to do so. As a result EPS systems may have additional failure modes, which need to be studied. In this paper we will consider the requirements for successful EPS operation. The steps required to develop diagnostics based on the requirements are also discussed. The results of this paper have been implemented in various EPS-based programs.
Technical Paper

Batteries for 42/14 Volt Automotive Electrical Systems

2000-08-21
2000-01-3065
The automotive industry is moving to a higher voltage for the electrical system. This change will occur because the total electrical power required by the vehicles will increase to a level where the current requirements at 14 volts will be impractical. Some of the new loads will change the duty cycle of the battery. The most notable change is the proposed start/stop mode of vehicle operation where the engine is stopped and restarted frequently to avoid prolonged operation at idle. An additional feature would be to use an electric motor to assist in acceleration and/or to actually launch the vehicle. This paper addresses the changes in battery requirements brought on by these new features. A means of analysis for choosing the appropriate battery technology is presented. We also propose a life test to establish a benchmark for current battery technology when it is used in a new duty cycle.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Hybrid Powertrain Strategies

2001-08-20
2001-01-2501
Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential to reduce air pollution and improve fuel economy without sacrificing the present conveniences of long range and available infrastructure that conventional vehicles offer. Hybrid vehicles are generally classified as series or parallel hybrids. A series hybrid vehicle is essentially an electric vehicle with an on-board source of power for charging the batteries. In a parallel hybrid vehicle, the engine and the electric motor can be used to drive the vehicle simultaneously. There are various possible configurations of parallel hybrid vehicles depending on the role of the electric motor/generator and the engine. In this paper, a comparative study of the drivetrains of five different hybrid vehicles is presented. The underlying design architectures are examined, with analysis as to the tradeoffs and advantages represented in these architectures.
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