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Technical Paper

Reliability of Resonant Micromachined Sensors and Actuators

2001-03-05
2001-01-0618
There are an increasing number of applications for resonant micromachines. Accelerometers, angular rate sensors, voltage controlled oscillators, pressure and chemical sensors have been demonstrated using this technology. Several of these devices are employed in vehicles. Vibrating devices have been made from silicon, quartz, GaAs, nickel and aluminum. Resonant microsystems are in constant motion and so present new challenges in the area of reliability for vehicular applications. The impact of temperature extremes, cyclic fatigue, stiction, thermal and mechanical shock on resonant device performance is covered.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Dynamic Response of a Cylinder Deactivation Valvetrain System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0669
This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of a cylinder deactivation valvetrain system for the integration into an Engine Management System (EMS). A control-oriented lumped parameter model of the deactivation valvetrain system is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink, and validated by experimental data. Through simulation and experimental data analysis, the effect of operating conditions on the dynamic response is captured and characterized, over a wide range of operating conditions. The algorithm provides a basis for the calibration of the deactivation hardware. The generic characterization of the dynamic response can simplify the calibration parameters for the implementation in engine management systems.
Technical Paper

Engine Control Using Torque Estimation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0995
In recent years, the increasing interest and requirements for improved engine diagnostics and control has led to the implementation of several different sensing and signal processing technologies. In order to optimize the performance and emission of an engine, detailed and specified knowledge of the combustion process inside the engine cylinder is required. In that sense, the torque generated by each combustion event in an IC engine is one of the most important variables related to the combustion process and engine performance. This paper introduces torque estimation techniques in the real-time basis for engine control applications using the measurement of crankshaft speed variation. The torque estimation scheme presented in this paper consists of two entirely different approaches, “Stochastic Analysis” and “Frequency Analysis”.
Technical Paper

Identification and Elimination of Steering Systems Squawk Noise

1997-05-20
972058
The problem being investigated involves a noise-quality issue on a power steering application, when a sudden change of steering wheel angle generates an unwanted steering system noise or “Squawk.” This phenomenon is mostly observed during parking maneuvers, especially at lock positions and when the hydraulic fluid reaches a critical temperature on the specific application. The objective of the work to solve this noise-quality issue was to first identify the cause and then eliminate the Squawk noise. There were several constraints: No change could be made in the properties or type of hydraulic fluid used due to specification requirements; Steering wheel valve torsion bar characteristic (torque vs. angle) needed to be maintained within specification for ride and handling purposes; and, In addition to the mentioned constraints, a high capability of noise elimination generated by the production tolerances and dispersion has been considered.
Technical Paper

Air Cleaner Shell Noise Reduction with Finite Element Shape Optimization

1997-05-20
971876
In this paper, finite element shape optimization is used to determine the optimum air cleaner shape and rib design for low shell noise. Shape variables are used to vary the height and location of rib elements, as well as vary the shape of the air cleaner surfaces. The optimization code evaluates each design variation and selects a search direction that will reduce surface velocity. Sound power radiation is calculated for each optimized design using an acoustic code. Large reductions in shell noise were achieved by optimizing the shape of the air cleaner surface and rib design. Optimization of the rib pattern alone yielded a local optimization, as opposed to a global optimization that represented the best possible design.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-1080
CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Thermal Electric Analysis of Bond Wires Used in Automotive Electronic Modules

2015-04-14
2015-01-0195
Bond wires are used in automotive electronic modules to carry current from external harness to components where flexibility under thermal cyclic loading is very essential between PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and connectors. They are very thin wires (few μm) made up of gold, aluminum or copper and have to undergo mechanical reliability to withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads during different vehicle operation scenarios. Thermal reliability of bond wire is to make sure that it can withstand prescribed electric current under given boundary conditions without fusing thereby retaining electronic module's functionality. While carrying current, bond wire by virtue of its nature resists electric current flow and generates heat also called as joule heating. Joule heating is proportional to current flow and electrical resistance and if not handled properly can lead to thermal run away conditions.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Fuel Control with a Switching Oxygen Sensor

1999-03-01
1999-01-0546
In this paper we discuss in detail an algorithm that addresses cylinder-to-cylinder imbalance issues. Maintaining even equivalence-ratio (ϕ) control across all the cylinders of an engine is confounded by imbalances which include fuel-injector flow variations, fresh-air intake maldistribution and uneven distribution of Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR). Moreover, in markets that are growing increasingly cost conscious, with ever tightening emissions regulations, correcting for such mismatches must not only be done, but done at little or no additional cost. To address this challenge, we developed an Individual Cylinder Fuel Control (ICFC) algorithm that estimates each cylinder's individual ϕ and then compensates to correct for any imbalance using only existing production hardware. Prior work in this area exists1,2, yet all disclosed production-intent work was performed using wide-range oxygen sensors, representing cost increases.
Technical Paper

Mean Value Engine Modelling of an SI Engine with EGR

1999-03-01
1999-01-0909
Mean Value Engine Models (MVEMs) are simplified, dynamic engine models which are physically based. Such models are useful for control studies, for engine control system analysis and for model based engine control systems. Very few published MVEMs have included the effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this paper is to present a modified MVEM which includes EGR in a physical way. It has been tested using newly developed, very fast manifold pressure, manifold temperature, port and EGR mass flow sensors. Reasonable agreement has been obtained on an experiemental engine, mounted on a dynamometer.
Technical Paper

An Engine Coolant Temperature Model and Application for Cooling System Diagnosis

2000-03-06
2000-01-0939
A coolant temperature model of an internal combustion engine has been formulated to meet the new On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD II) requirement for coolant temperature rationality. The model utilizes information available within the production Engine Control Module (ECM). The temperature prediction capability has been tested for various “real-world” driving conditions and cycles along with regulated drive cycles. The model can be calibrated to find the appropriate timing for initiation of a diagnostic algorithm for engine cooling system and Coolant Temperature Sensor (CTS) faults. A diagnostic scheme has been developed to detect and isolate various types of cooling system failures using engine soak time information available from a low power timer in the ECM.
Technical Paper

Analytical Solution for Heat Flow in Cylinder and Its Application in Calculating Converter Skin Temperature

2000-03-06
2000-01-0301
In the catalytic converter, the thermal conductivity of the insulation material (intumescent mat) placed between the ceramic catalyst and the metal shell is strongly dependent on the temperature, resulting in the solving of non-linear heat conduction equations. In this paper, the analytic solution for the steady heat flow in a cylinder with temperature dependent conductivity is given. Using this analytic solution for the mat and including convection and radiation at the converter skin, an analytical expression for calculating converter skin temperature is obtained. This expression can be easily incorporated in a Fortran code to calculate the temperatures.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Mechanical Variable Valve Actuation System

2000-03-06
2000-01-1221
Compromises inherent with fixed valve lift and event timing have prompted engine designers to consider Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) systems for many decades. In recent years, some relatively basic forms of VVA have been introduced into production engines. Greater performance and driveability expectations of customers, more stringent emission regulations set by government legislators, and the mutual desire for higher fuel economy are increasingly at odds. As a solution, many OEM companies are seriously considering large-scale application of higher function VVA mechanisms in their next generation vehicles. This paper describes the continuing development progress of a mechanical VVA system. Design features and operation of the mechanism are explained. Test results are presented in two sections: motored cylinder head test data focuses on VVA system friction, control system performance, valve lift and component stress.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Changes in Ambient and Coolant Radiator Inlet Temperatures and Coolant Flowrate on Specific Dissipation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0579
In this paper, a theoretical model for the calculation of Specific Dissipation (SD) was developed. Based on the model, the effect of ambient and coolant radiator inlet temperatures on SD has been predicted. Results indicate that the effect of ambient and coolant inlet temperature variation on SD is small (less than 2%) when ambient temperature varies between 10 and 50°C and coolant radiator inlet temperature between 60 and 120°C. The effect of coolant flowrate on SD is larger if there is a larger flowrate variation. Experimental results indicate that a 1 % variation at 1.0 L/s will cause about ±0.6% SD variation. Therefore the flowrate should be carefully controlled.
Technical Paper

USE OF CFD SIMULATION TO PREDICT CAVITATION IN AUTOMOTIVE HEATER CORES

2005-11-22
2005-01-4027
Several heater cores failed due to erosion by cavitation. After analysis, most of failures were explained by the presence of impurities in the heater core. It was then decided with the customer to use CFD simulation in order to prove that the cavitation was not caused by design concept of the tank. In this paper, we present the results of heater core simulations done in 2D and in 3D with Fluent. The objective is to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution within the heater core and to verify if the zones of low pressure are below the saturation vapour pressure of the fluid causing cavitation. In these areas, the deterioration of the tubes might occur due to erosion by cavitation.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Behavior of Semi-Solid Formed A357-T6 Aluminum

2001-03-05
2001-01-0413
The fundamental relationship between semi-solid processing and microstructure and their effect on the flow characteristics of semi-solid metals have been studied for several years. However, how the process related microstructure influences fatigue properties has not been given the same attention. This study examines the influence of process-related microstructure on the fatigue properties of semi-solid formed A357 alloys. High-solid-fraction (62% solid) and low-solid-fraction (31% and 36% solid) semi-solid formed A357 was tested in axial fatigue with a stress ratio (R) equal to -1. The high solid fraction (HSF) material had better fatigue properties than the low solid fraction (LSF) material. This is attributed to the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms, as related to the fatigue crack initiation features and the strengths of the materials.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Stability with Engine Drag Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-1217
This paper describes the development and implementation of an Engine Drag Control algorithm to improve vehicle stability performance. Engine drag can occur on low and high coefficient surfaces when the driver suddenly releases the throttle. If the engine drag force becomes larger than the frictional force between the tire and the road, the tires will break loose from the surface and slip. This could induce vehicle instability especially with rear drive vehicles on low-coefficient surfaces. The EDC algorithm has been developed to provide accurate control of the wheels. EDC will help reduce the yaw rate of the vehicle and thus achieve greater vehicle stability. The paper also presents methods used to test the robustness of such a system. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that there would be no false activations of EDC under normal driving conditions and also to ensure that, when the system is active, it is mostly transparent to the driver.
Technical Paper

Use of CFD Simulation to Predict Fan Power and Airflow Pattern Inside the Climatic Chamber

2004-11-16
2004-01-3254
For A/C and cooling systems development is usual send vehicles to US or Europe for wind tunnel tests, witch is expensive and has a long lead-time. Here in Brazil Delphi has at the Piracicaba Technical Center a chamber equipped with temperature control and chassis dynamometer. There is a up-grade project for it that consist in add ducts with fans inside the chamber that will get air from the chamber, already in the right temperature, accelerate and homogenate the air flow and blow it out direct to the front end of the vehicle. For development purposes may be possible eliminate totally the necessity of sending vehicle abroad. It was then decided to use CFD simulation to predict firstly the required fan power necessary to supply winds until 120 km/h at the front end of the vehicle and secondly predict the airflow pattern inside the chamber, considering chamber inlet air, chamber outlet air, exhaust outlet, duct outlet and flow pattern around the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Brake Caliper Seal-Groove Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0927
It is well known that the design of the seal groove assembly in the brake caliper greatly influences the braking performance. The rubber seal performs the dual function of sealing the piston bore and retracting the caliper piston after a brake apply. However, the seal function is affected by the configuration of the seal groove, as well as the friction at the piston/seal and groove/seal interfaces. The material properties of the rubber seal are also important design parameters. Issues such as fluid displacement, piston retraction, piston sliding force, and brake drag are some of the critical brake performance parameters that must be considered in every caliper seal-groove design. Presently, the brake caliper seal groove design is still based on empirical rules established mainly from past experience and its performance is achieved through prototype testing.
Journal Article

Ignition Systems for Spray-Guided Stratified Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0598
The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems.
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