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Technical Paper

A Madymo Model of the Foot and Leg for Local Impacts

1999-10-10
99SC12
It has been reported that lower extremity injuries represent a measurable portion of all moderate-to-severe automobile crash- related injuries. Thus, a simple tool to assist with the design of leg and foot injury countermeasures is desirable. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model which can predict load propagation and kinematics of the foot and leg in frontal automotive impacts. A multi-body model developed at the University of Virginia and validated for blunt impact to the whole foot has been used as basis for the current work. This model includes representations of the tibia, fibula, talus, hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot bones. Additionally, the model provides a means for tensioning the Achilles tendon. In the current study, the simulations conducted correspond to tests performed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the University of Nottingham on knee-amputated cadaver specimens.
Technical Paper

Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

2012-10-02
2012-36-0262
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables.
Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

2010-10-06
2010-36-0160
One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Technical Paper

An Expandable Passive Optical Star Network Architecture for Automotive Applications

1999-03-01
1999-01-0303
When comparing vehicle communication architectures, the passive star network has been shown to be the highest fault tolerant system. Despite this trait, the passive star architecture has not been widely implemented due to its potential application limitations: insufficient node count and relatively short node lengths. These constraints arise from the basic function of the star, i.e. to evenly distribute a given amount of optical power to all nodes connected to the star without amplification or retransmission. This paper provides a solution to overcome the limitations of the passive star through the introduction of a new communication component, the Active Distribution Node (ADN). The ADN enables a passive star network to support larger node counts and significantly longer node lengths, without sacrificing fault tolerance or the low cost nature of the basic passive star architecture.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Air Meter Interface Strategies for Engine Management Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0546
When an air meter is specified for an engine management system, air meter accuracy is given high priority. Air meter manufacturers characterize the accuracy of their products using laboratory instrumentation to measure the air meter output vs. flow characteristics. Ultimately the air meter is applied to an engine management system in a vehicle. The engine management system must use the information provided by the air meter without the benefit of laboratory instrumentation. Therefore, the entire measurement system must be considered in evaluating the effective accuracy. The most fundamental aspect to consider is the output signal format between the air meter and the engine management system. Two commonly available formats will be investigated: frequency and voltage.
Technical Paper

Delphi Electronic Throttle Control Systems for Model Year 2000;Driver Features, System Security, and OEM Benefits. ETC for the Mass Market

2000-03-06
2000-01-0556
Delphi has developed a second-generation Electronic Throttle Control system optimized for high volume applications. The Delphi system integrates several unique driver performance features, extensive security/diagnostics, and provides significant benefits for the vehicle manufacturer. For Model Year 2000, the Delphi ETC system has been successfully implemented on several popular SUVs and passenger cars built and sold around the world. The ETC driver features, security systems, and manufacturer benefits are presented as implemented on these Model Year 2000 applications.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Lead-Free Solder for Automotive Electronics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0017
Lead-free solders for electronics have been actively pursued since the early 1990's here and abroad for environmental, legislative, and competitive reasons. The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS-US)1, the International Tin Research Institute (ITRI-UK)2, Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research (IVF-Sweden)3, Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging (JIEP Japan)4, Improved Design Life and Environmentally Aware Manufacture of Electronics Assemblies by Lead-free Soldering (IDEALS-Europe)5, and, more recently, the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI-US)6 have been aggressively seeking lead-free solutions The automotive industry has some unique requirements that demand extensive testing of new materials and processes prior to implementation. The specific steps taken at Delphi Automotive Systems with lead-free solder will be described along with the lessons learned along the way.
Technical Paper

Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

2015-04-14
2015-01-0715
Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
Technical Paper

Implications of 3-D Internal Flow Simulation on the Design of Inward-Opening Pressure-Swirl Injectors

2002-10-21
2002-01-2698
A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Stability with Engine Drag Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-1217
This paper describes the development and implementation of an Engine Drag Control algorithm to improve vehicle stability performance. Engine drag can occur on low and high coefficient surfaces when the driver suddenly releases the throttle. If the engine drag force becomes larger than the frictional force between the tire and the road, the tires will break loose from the surface and slip. This could induce vehicle instability especially with rear drive vehicles on low-coefficient surfaces. The EDC algorithm has been developed to provide accurate control of the wheels. EDC will help reduce the yaw rate of the vehicle and thus achieve greater vehicle stability. The paper also presents methods used to test the robustness of such a system. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that there would be no false activations of EDC under normal driving conditions and also to ensure that, when the system is active, it is mostly transparent to the driver.
Technical Paper

Development Experience with Steer-by-Wire

2001-08-20
2001-01-2479
Recent advances in dependable embedded system technology, as well as continuing demand for improved handling and passive and active safety improvements, have led vehicle manufacturers and suppliers to actively pursue development programs in computer-controlled, by-wire subsystems. These subsystems include steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire, and are composed of mechanically de-coupled sets of actuators and controllers connected through multiplexed, in-vehicle computer networks; there is no mechanical link to the driver. This paper addresses fundamental benefits and issues of steer-by-wire, especially those related to automated vehicle control and steering feel quality as perceived by the driver.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Friendly Car Wiring System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0595
Legal requirements and responsibility for the environment require improved recyclability of car components. This can be achieved by a reduction in the variety of materials used, which can be separated after use. This is being demonstrated for wiring harnesses using a new hook and loop based fastening system. Easier assembly and disassembly, elimination of fixation holes in the car body, and improved serviceability can lead to considerable cost reductions. Field experience on test cars will be available at a later date.
Technical Paper

Flawless Manufacturing of RACam through XCP Protocol

2016-04-05
2016-01-0047
RACam [1] is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors - Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in a single package. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL). Figure 1 RACam Front View. With an increase in Active Safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for Active Safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize RADAR and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to improve the operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Globalization of the Design for Manufacturability/Assembly Process within the Automotive Wiring Assembly Business

1999-03-01
1999-01-0052
Automotive wiring assembly design and manufacturing has evolved from a locally based business to a global business. It is common today to engineer the design of a wiring assembly in one region of the world, to manufacture it in a second region, and to assemble it into the vehicle in a third region. This creates a need for global collaboration, training and communications. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) is a tool that can aid in this, in developing common processes globally, and reducing the cost and design complexity of the product in the early design stages. To develop a global DFM process, an organization must develop and implement a strategy. This paper will review the approach that an automotive wiring assembly supplier adopted. It will enumerate the benefits of developing a global Design for Manufacturability process, selecting a champion, and using a twelve-step plan to integrate DFM into each region.
Technical Paper

Barometric Pressure Estimator for Production Engine Control and Diagnostics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0206
A Barometric Pressure Estimator (BPE) algorithm was implemented in a production speed-density Engine Management System (EMS). The BPE is a model-based, easily calibrated algorithm for estimating barometric pressure using a standard set of production sensors, thereby avoiding the need for a barometric pressure sensor. An accurate barometric pressure value is necessary for a variety of engine control functions. By starting with the physics describing the flow through the induction system, an algorithm was developed which is simple to understand and implement. When used in conjunction with the Pneumatic and Thermal State Estimator (PSE and TSE) algorithms [2], the BPE requires only a single additional calibration table, generated with an automated processing routine, directly from measured engine data collected at an arbitrary elevation, in-vehicle or on a dynamometer. The algorithm has been implemented on several different engines.
Technical Paper

Concept to Production: Continuous Surface Keypad Switch

1999-03-01
1999-01-0413
The objective of this paper is to impart the challenges presented and the solutions derived to transform an artist's rendering into a production driver's door switch to be used in the interior of a high profile sports car. The challenges took many forms throughout the process, from data translation and packaging, to the final decorative issues. The results are a finished product providing a new approach to automotive interior switch design. It incorporates a low profile, continuous plane keypad with “soft touch” feel, tactile feedback, and integrated back lighting.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Fuel Control with a Switching Oxygen Sensor

1999-03-01
1999-01-0546
In this paper we discuss in detail an algorithm that addresses cylinder-to-cylinder imbalance issues. Maintaining even equivalence-ratio (ϕ) control across all the cylinders of an engine is confounded by imbalances which include fuel-injector flow variations, fresh-air intake maldistribution and uneven distribution of Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR). Moreover, in markets that are growing increasingly cost conscious, with ever tightening emissions regulations, correcting for such mismatches must not only be done, but done at little or no additional cost. To address this challenge, we developed an Individual Cylinder Fuel Control (ICFC) algorithm that estimates each cylinder's individual ϕ and then compensates to correct for any imbalance using only existing production hardware. Prior work in this area exists1,2, yet all disclosed production-intent work was performed using wide-range oxygen sensors, representing cost increases.
Technical Paper

5th Percentile Driver Out of Position Computer Simulation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1006
A finite element model of a folded airbag with the module cover and steering wheel system was developed to estimate the injury numbers of a 5th percentile female dummy in an out-of-position (OOP) situation. The airbag model was correlated with static airbag deployments and standard force plate tests. The 5th percentile finite element dummy model developed by First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) was used in the simulation. The following two OOP tests were simulated with the airbag model including a validated steering wheel finite element model: 1. Chest on air bag module for maximum chest interaction from pressure loading (MS6-D) and 2. Neck on air bag module for maximum neck interaction from membrane loading (MS8-D). These two simulations were then compared to the test results. Satisfactory correlation was found in both the cases.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Strategies for Advanced Automotive Systems

2002-10-21
2002-21-0024
In recent years, the desire for improved vehicle performance, reliability and safety have increased the electrical content and its complexity in vehicles. Advanced automotive systems integrate sensors, controllers, actuators and communication networks. To maintain safety and reliability, a comprehensive system of diagnostics and physical and analytic redundancy are used. In some cases, diagnostic strategies based on analytical redundancy can provide detection, as well as fault-tolerance, and may provide benefits in cost, packaging, flexibility and reusability. This paper discusses a range of diagnostic methods and their applicability to advanced automotive systems such as X-by-Wire. It will also show the reduction to practice of an advanced analytical technique for an automotive application.
Technical Paper

Using the Six Sigma Methodology for Process Variation Reduction

2007-11-28
2007-01-2872
This paper is about the use of the Six Sigma Methodology, to solve variation problems in the manufacture area, at one of the Delphi Automotive Systems unit that manufacturer electrical harness. The DMAIC framework was followed, the improvements were done, eliminating the rots causes, and the use of Six Sigma methodology, was showed very efficient in solve problems. The methodology power, is in using a structured frame work, the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control), completing by quality quality tools (Pareto Chart, Five Why's, Cause and Effect Diagram) and statistical analyses, for example: variance analyses, hypotheses tests and Design of Experiments.
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