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Technical Paper

Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

2012-10-02
2012-36-0262
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables.
Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

2010-10-06
2010-36-0160
One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Sensory Evaluation of Commercial Truck Interiors

1999-03-01
1999-01-1267
Vehicle interior harmony is related to human factors but it deals with human emotional attachment to the product. Kansei, or sensory engineering provides an effective approach to address harmony issues. This paper reports a preliminary investigation of human sensory evaluation of commercial truck interiors, especially the door interiors. To investigate the end users' needs and preference, a questionnaire survey was administered to twenty-six commercial truck drivers. Responses on usability, styling, harmony, and ergonomics issues of each driver's own truck were recorded. Furthermore, a set of 12 semantic differential scales, together with a preference ranking scale, was served to evaluate six truck door interiors. Results show that commercial truck drivers are more concerned with functionality and usability than styling and visual harmony.
Technical Paper

An Expandable Passive Optical Star Network Architecture for Automotive Applications

1999-03-01
1999-01-0303
When comparing vehicle communication architectures, the passive star network has been shown to be the highest fault tolerant system. Despite this trait, the passive star architecture has not been widely implemented due to its potential application limitations: insufficient node count and relatively short node lengths. These constraints arise from the basic function of the star, i.e. to evenly distribute a given amount of optical power to all nodes connected to the star without amplification or retransmission. This paper provides a solution to overcome the limitations of the passive star through the introduction of a new communication component, the Active Distribution Node (ADN). The ADN enables a passive star network to support larger node counts and significantly longer node lengths, without sacrificing fault tolerance or the low cost nature of the basic passive star architecture.
Technical Paper

US and UK Belted Driver Injuries with and without Airbag Deployments - A Field Data Analysis

1999-03-01
1999-01-0633
This study compares the effect of US and European airbag deployments on injury outcomes for belted drivers in frontal crashes. Driver weight, height and seat track position was also examined in relation to those outcomes. This information may help to prioritize and guide the logic for “Smart” airbags. For the study, only airbag-equipped cars were considered. Two accident databases were used: 1) the weighted and unweighted National Accident Sampling System (NASS-CDS) from the US, calendar years 1995 to 1996, and 2) the unweighted Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) from the UK, calendar years 1992 to 1998. The parameters investigated were Injury Severity Score (ISS), Equivalent Test Speed (ETS), occupant weight, occupant height and seat location. For US drivers, the injury rate and occurrence were calculated using weighted data, while for UK drivers, the rate and occurrence were obtained using unweighted data.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Air Meter Interface Strategies for Engine Management Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0546
When an air meter is specified for an engine management system, air meter accuracy is given high priority. Air meter manufacturers characterize the accuracy of their products using laboratory instrumentation to measure the air meter output vs. flow characteristics. Ultimately the air meter is applied to an engine management system in a vehicle. The engine management system must use the information provided by the air meter without the benefit of laboratory instrumentation. Therefore, the entire measurement system must be considered in evaluating the effective accuracy. The most fundamental aspect to consider is the output signal format between the air meter and the engine management system. Two commonly available formats will be investigated: frequency and voltage.
Technical Paper

Delphi Electronic Throttle Control Systems for Model Year 2000;Driver Features, System Security, and OEM Benefits. ETC for the Mass Market

2000-03-06
2000-01-0556
Delphi has developed a second-generation Electronic Throttle Control system optimized for high volume applications. The Delphi system integrates several unique driver performance features, extensive security/diagnostics, and provides significant benefits for the vehicle manufacturer. For Model Year 2000, the Delphi ETC system has been successfully implemented on several popular SUVs and passenger cars built and sold around the world. The ETC driver features, security systems, and manufacturer benefits are presented as implemented on these Model Year 2000 applications.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Lead-Free Solder for Automotive Electronics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0017
Lead-free solders for electronics have been actively pursued since the early 1990's here and abroad for environmental, legislative, and competitive reasons. The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS-US)1, the International Tin Research Institute (ITRI-UK)2, Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research (IVF-Sweden)3, Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging (JIEP Japan)4, Improved Design Life and Environmentally Aware Manufacture of Electronics Assemblies by Lead-free Soldering (IDEALS-Europe)5, and, more recently, the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI-US)6 have been aggressively seeking lead-free solutions The automotive industry has some unique requirements that demand extensive testing of new materials and processes prior to implementation. The specific steps taken at Delphi Automotive Systems with lead-free solder will be described along with the lessons learned along the way.
Technical Paper

Comfort and Usability of the Seat Belts

2001-03-05
2001-01-0051
Seat belts are the primary occupant-protection devices for vehicle crashes. Field statistics show that proper usage of seat belts substantially contributes to decreases in the fatality rate and injury level. To collect first-hand information regarding seat belt comfort and usability, a questionnaire survey was conducted. The most significant problems were found as belt trapping in the door, awkward negotiating with clothes, belt twisting, belt locking up, and difficulty to locate the buckle. The survey results indicated that drivers who are over 40 years old have more complaints than younger drivers. When the driver's age increases to 55 and above, belt pulling force and inappropriate and loose fitting of the belt on the body become major issues. Female drivers have more complaints than male drivers. Short statured drivers need both hands to pull and guide the retracting of the belt.
Technical Paper

Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

2015-04-14
2015-01-0715
Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
Technical Paper

Implications of 3-D Internal Flow Simulation on the Design of Inward-Opening Pressure-Swirl Injectors

2002-10-21
2002-01-2698
A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Stability with Engine Drag Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-1217
This paper describes the development and implementation of an Engine Drag Control algorithm to improve vehicle stability performance. Engine drag can occur on low and high coefficient surfaces when the driver suddenly releases the throttle. If the engine drag force becomes larger than the frictional force between the tire and the road, the tires will break loose from the surface and slip. This could induce vehicle instability especially with rear drive vehicles on low-coefficient surfaces. The EDC algorithm has been developed to provide accurate control of the wheels. EDC will help reduce the yaw rate of the vehicle and thus achieve greater vehicle stability. The paper also presents methods used to test the robustness of such a system. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that there would be no false activations of EDC under normal driving conditions and also to ensure that, when the system is active, it is mostly transparent to the driver.
Technical Paper

Development Experience with Steer-by-Wire

2001-08-20
2001-01-2479
Recent advances in dependable embedded system technology, as well as continuing demand for improved handling and passive and active safety improvements, have led vehicle manufacturers and suppliers to actively pursue development programs in computer-controlled, by-wire subsystems. These subsystems include steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire, and are composed of mechanically de-coupled sets of actuators and controllers connected through multiplexed, in-vehicle computer networks; there is no mechanical link to the driver. This paper addresses fundamental benefits and issues of steer-by-wire, especially those related to automated vehicle control and steering feel quality as perceived by the driver.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Friendly Car Wiring System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0595
Legal requirements and responsibility for the environment require improved recyclability of car components. This can be achieved by a reduction in the variety of materials used, which can be separated after use. This is being demonstrated for wiring harnesses using a new hook and loop based fastening system. Easier assembly and disassembly, elimination of fixation holes in the car body, and improved serviceability can lead to considerable cost reductions. Field experience on test cars will be available at a later date.
Technical Paper

Flawless Manufacturing of RACam through XCP Protocol

2016-04-05
2016-01-0047
RACam [1] is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors - Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in a single package. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL). Figure 1 RACam Front View. With an increase in Active Safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for Active Safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize RADAR and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to improve the operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Globalization of the Design for Manufacturability/Assembly Process within the Automotive Wiring Assembly Business

1999-03-01
1999-01-0052
Automotive wiring assembly design and manufacturing has evolved from a locally based business to a global business. It is common today to engineer the design of a wiring assembly in one region of the world, to manufacture it in a second region, and to assemble it into the vehicle in a third region. This creates a need for global collaboration, training and communications. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) is a tool that can aid in this, in developing common processes globally, and reducing the cost and design complexity of the product in the early design stages. To develop a global DFM process, an organization must develop and implement a strategy. This paper will review the approach that an automotive wiring assembly supplier adopted. It will enumerate the benefits of developing a global Design for Manufacturability process, selecting a champion, and using a twelve-step plan to integrate DFM into each region.
Technical Paper

Concept to Production: Continuous Surface Keypad Switch

1999-03-01
1999-01-0413
The objective of this paper is to impart the challenges presented and the solutions derived to transform an artist's rendering into a production driver's door switch to be used in the interior of a high profile sports car. The challenges took many forms throughout the process, from data translation and packaging, to the final decorative issues. The results are a finished product providing a new approach to automotive interior switch design. It incorporates a low profile, continuous plane keypad with “soft touch” feel, tactile feedback, and integrated back lighting.
Technical Paper

The Effectiveness of Adjustable Pedals Usage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0172
This study evaluates the comfort benefits of adjustable pedals by determining their effect on the distance between the occupant and steering wheel, occupant posture and foot kinematics. For the study, 20 volunteers were tested in a small and large vehicle equipped with adjustable pedals. Twenty volunteers were tested in a small and large vehicle at 3 pedal positions: normal, comfortable and maximum tolerable. In the small car, the decrease in ankle-to-steering wheel distance between the normal and comfortable position was higher in the short-statured group than the medium group. The mean change in chest-to-steering wheel distance was about 50 mm in the medium and in the order of 40 mm in the short group. The seatback angle increased by 2° in the medium group and decreased by 3° in the short group. In the large car, the decrease in ankle-to-steering wheel distance between comfortable and the normal position was about 70 mm in the short-statured and medium group.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Strategies for Advanced Automotive Systems

2002-10-21
2002-21-0024
In recent years, the desire for improved vehicle performance, reliability and safety have increased the electrical content and its complexity in vehicles. Advanced automotive systems integrate sensors, controllers, actuators and communication networks. To maintain safety and reliability, a comprehensive system of diagnostics and physical and analytic redundancy are used. In some cases, diagnostic strategies based on analytical redundancy can provide detection, as well as fault-tolerance, and may provide benefits in cost, packaging, flexibility and reusability. This paper discusses a range of diagnostic methods and their applicability to advanced automotive systems such as X-by-Wire. It will also show the reduction to practice of an advanced analytical technique for an automotive application.
Technical Paper

Kansei Engineering Application on Commercial Truck Interior Design Harmony

2000-12-04
2000-01-3412
Vehicle interior harmony has drawn increasing attention from customers in recent years. Kansei Engineering is an effective approach to quantify the relationship between design parameters and customer perceptions of the product. This article is a continuation of our previous study on commercial truck interior harmony. Herein, we investigated the customer perception of the visual aspects of commercial truck door interior design using classification methods. This article describes how these visual impressions are related to design elements using quantification theory, a commonly used method in Kansei Engineering. The results reveal that trim material, shape, color, window shape, and map pocket are design elements that strongly affect the perception of elegance and preferences of truck drivers. The results also showed a significant difference between the perception of the truck drivers and design engineers.
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