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Technical Paper

A Model-based Environment for Production Engine Management System (EMS) Development

2001-03-05
2001-01-0554
This paper describes an environment for the development of production Engine Management Systems (EMS). This includes a formal framework and modeling methodology. The environment is based on using Simulink/Stateflow for developing a control system executable specification and a plant model. This allows for simulations of the system to be performed at the engineer's desk, which is identical performance with production software. We provide the details for incorporating production legacy code into the Simulink/Stateflow control system. The system includes a multi-rate, and event driven operating system. This system is developed to facilitate new algorithm development and automated software testing. Based on Simulink/Stateflow this specification will be suitable for use with commercial automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

LIN Bus and its Potential for Use in Distributed Multiplex Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0072
The increasing features and complexity of today's automotive architectures are becoming increasingly difficult to manage. Each new innovation typically requires additional mechanical actuators and associated electrical controllers. The sheer number of black boxes and wiring are being limited not by features or cost but by the inability to physically assemble them into a vehicle. A new architecture is required which will support the ability to add new features but also enable the Vehicle Assembly Plants to easily assemble and test each subsystem. One such architecture is a distributed multiplex arrangement that reduces the number of wires while enabling flexibility and expandability. Previous versions have had to deal with issues such as noise immunity at high switching currents. The LIN Bus with its low cost and rail-to-rail capability may be the key enabling technology to make the multiplexed architecture a reality.
Technical Paper

Emission Formation Mechanisms in a Two-Stroke Direct-Injection Engine

1998-10-19
982697
Engine tests were conducted to study the effect of fuel-air mixture preparation on the combustion and emission performance of a two-stroke direct-injection engine. The in-cylinder mixture distribution was altered by changing the injection system, injection timing, and by substituting the air in an air-assisted injector with nitrogen. Two injection systems which produce significantly different mixtures were investigated; an air-assisted injector with a highly atomized spray, and a single-fluid high pressure-swirl injector with a dense penetrating spray. The engine was operated at overall A/F ratios of 30:1, where stratification was necessary to ensure stable combustion; and at 20:1 and 15:1 where it was possible to operate in a nearly homogeneous mode. Moderate engine speeds and loads were investigated. The effects of the burning-zone A/F ratio were isolated by using nitrogen as the working fluid in the air-assist injector.
Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

2010-10-06
2010-36-0160
One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Tool for Multilayer Stack Assemblies

2011-10-06
2011-28-0083
The development of an analytical model for multilayer stack subjected to temperature change is demonstrated here. Thin continuous layers of materials bonded together deform as a plate due to their differing coefficients of thermal expansion upon subjecting the bonded materials to the change in temperature. Applications of such structures can be found in the electronics industry (the study of warpage issues in printed circuit boards) or in the aerospace industry as (the study of laminated thin sheets used as skin structures for load bearing members such as wings and fuselage). In automotive electronics, critical high-power packages (IGBT, Power FETs) include several layers of widely differing materials (aluminum, solder, copper, ceramics) subjected to wide temperature cyclic ranges. Modeling of such structures by using three-dimensional finite element methods is usually time consuming and may not exactly predict the inter-laminar strains.
Technical Paper

Software Quality Improvements using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS)

2008-10-07
2008-36-0325
Short timing and complexes strategies are mandatory in a competitive market as automotive industry. Therefore quality problems identification during and after the coding phase, may be the difference between the business success and undesired conflicts with customer, solving problems that were not previously identified. Consequently the usage of technique Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) to analyze coding metrics, create an environment to improve the final product quality and mitigate potential problems later identified.
Technical Paper

Application of Lean Manufacturing to React to Fast Market Growth

2008-10-07
2008-36-0399
Brazilian automotive market has been growing faster than ever. In order to react properly to market increasing demand in terms of volume and diversity, production systems have to be carefully designed. Traditional manufacturing tends to react to demand increase by outsourcing or investing in new equipments or facilities. Lean thinking suggests that by reducing waste along the value stream it is possible to increase flexibility and freed resources to reduce the investment level required to cope customer’s needs. This paper presents two cases of a system redesign based on the lean manufacturing principles to support the demand.
Technical Paper

Achieving Breakthrough on Manufacturing Floor through Project-Based Organization

2009-10-06
2009-36-0333
Many companies around the world have adopted the lean thinking as their strategy to operate, in a global market where changes happen all the time. One foundation for the success of lean manufacturing appliance is the continuous improvement approach which has been considered even on company statements, or it can be also considered as part of the genetic code of any enterprise. However, if in one side the continuous improvement thinking, set people mind to look for opportunities of improvement all the time, on other hand these improvements are incremental and they do not have significant impact on company performance on both short-term and medium-term and sometimes, the activities performed by the employees are not sustainable due to the lack of structure to manage and follow up these activities.
Technical Paper

Laser Welding: An Exploratory Study towards Continuous Improvement on Stainless Steel Welding Joints

2009-10-06
2009-36-0330
The utilization of Laser welding process has increased during last years in several areas of industry, due to many benefits that can be achieved with this technology, such as: flexibility, productivity and quality. Thus, the optimization of Laser welding processes has been considered as a “green field” to be explored by Laser manufacturers, automation companies and process/project engineers. Nowadays there are few researches that provide a roadmap for Laser welding processes improvement that approaches both the aspects and characteristics applied to evaluate the Laser weld application performance. Therefore, this paper has per its main purpose through an exploratory study to provide parameters toward continuous improvement of Laser welding process considering both types of Lasers: Laser spot weld and Laser seam weld of stainless steel joints, thus this work may be considered as theoretical and practical reference to be applied by people involved with Laser welding applications.
Technical Paper

Resistance Welding for Automotive Wiring Harness Connection - Small Gauge Cables

2012-10-02
2012-36-0153
Miniaturization is an important trend in many technology segments, once it can enable innovative applications generating new markets. This trend was begun in electronics industry after World War II and has spawned changes into automotive sector also. For Automotive Wiring Harness, miniaturization is clearly presented in most of the components, mainly because of its benefits like the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Furthermore the main voice of customer points to cable gauge reduction that represents a considerable challenge for connection manufacturing process due to quality control limitations presented by conventional crimp process for 0,35 [mm₂] cables and smaller. According to that, the scope of this article is to present, in details, a manufacturing process optimization for an alternative and more robust technology of joining copper stranded cables to tin brass terminals used on automotive wiring harness, Resistance Welding.
Technical Paper

Development of Electrical-Electronic Controls for a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0614
Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project. In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI.
Technical Paper

Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

2015-04-14
2015-01-0715
Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
Technical Paper

Barometric Pressure Estimator for Production Engine Control and Diagnostics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0206
A Barometric Pressure Estimator (BPE) algorithm was implemented in a production speed-density Engine Management System (EMS). The BPE is a model-based, easily calibrated algorithm for estimating barometric pressure using a standard set of production sensors, thereby avoiding the need for a barometric pressure sensor. An accurate barometric pressure value is necessary for a variety of engine control functions. By starting with the physics describing the flow through the induction system, an algorithm was developed which is simple to understand and implement. When used in conjunction with the Pneumatic and Thermal State Estimator (PSE and TSE) algorithms [2], the BPE requires only a single additional calibration table, generated with an automated processing routine, directly from measured engine data collected at an arbitrary elevation, in-vehicle or on a dynamometer. The algorithm has been implemented on several different engines.
Technical Paper

Globalization of the Design for Manufacturability/Assembly Process within the Automotive Wiring Assembly Business

1999-03-01
1999-01-0052
Automotive wiring assembly design and manufacturing has evolved from a locally based business to a global business. It is common today to engineer the design of a wiring assembly in one region of the world, to manufacture it in a second region, and to assemble it into the vehicle in a third region. This creates a need for global collaboration, training and communications. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) is a tool that can aid in this, in developing common processes globally, and reducing the cost and design complexity of the product in the early design stages. To develop a global DFM process, an organization must develop and implement a strategy. This paper will review the approach that an automotive wiring assembly supplier adopted. It will enumerate the benefits of developing a global Design for Manufacturability process, selecting a champion, and using a twelve-step plan to integrate DFM into each region.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Corner System Modeling and Simulation

1999-10-10
1999-01-3400
This paper documents the advantages of brake corner system modeling and simulation over traditional component analysis techniques. A better understanding of the mechanical dynamics of the disc-braking event has been gained through brake corner system modeling and simulation. Single component analyses do not consider the load transfer between components during the braking event. Brake corner system analysis clearly quantifies the internal load path and load transfer sequence between components due to clearances or tolerance variations in the brake assembly. By modeling the complete brake corner assembly, the interaction between components due to the contact friction loads and variational boundary conditions can be determined. The end result permits optimal design of brake corner systems having less deflection, lower stress, optimum material mass, and reduced lead-time for new designs.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis of a SuperPlug™ Door Module Response to a Door Slam Event

1999-03-01
1999-01-0406
The SuperPlug™ door module is a new Delphi innovation. It is a one-piece composite structure, which integrates several door components into one assembly. This reduces the total part count, simplifies the vehicle level assembly process, and reduces labor cost (see the Appendix). The door slam durability test is an important factor in door module design. As more hardware is integrated into the SuperPlug, this subsystem performance in a door slam test becomes important. Therefore, the correct placement of components and the supporting structure is critical. Currently, the evaluation of door slam durability for the SuperPlug is a process of build then test. This is time consuming and costly due to a long testing lead-time and the expense of tooling a new mold. It was realized that a numerical process for assessing the effect of door slam would be required. This process would compute the dynamic response using finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

Concept to Production: Continuous Surface Keypad Switch

1999-03-01
1999-01-0413
The objective of this paper is to impart the challenges presented and the solutions derived to transform an artist's rendering into a production driver's door switch to be used in the interior of a high profile sports car. The challenges took many forms throughout the process, from data translation and packaging, to the final decorative issues. The results are a finished product providing a new approach to automotive interior switch design. It incorporates a low profile, continuous plane keypad with “soft touch” feel, tactile feedback, and integrated back lighting.
Technical Paper

All Olefinic Interiors-What Will It Take To Happen?

2000-03-06
2000-01-0632
TPO is getting wider acceptance for automotive applications. An exterior application like a fascia is a very good example. Interiors are still a challenge due to many reasons including overall system cost. For interior applications, “all-olefin” means it mainly consists of three materials: TPO skin, cross-linked olefinic-based foam and PP substrate. The driving force for TPO in Europe is mainly recyclability while in the USA, it is long-term durability. This paper describes the key limitations of the current TPO systems which are: poor grain retention of TPO skin, shrinkage in-consistency of the skin, high cost of priming (or other treatments) and painting of the skin, lower process window of the semi-crystalline TPO material during thermoforming or In-mold lamination / Low pressure molding, high cost of the foam, low tear strength of the foam for deep draw ratio etc.
Technical Paper

Rheocasting of Semi-Solid A357 Aluminum

2000-03-06
2000-01-0059
The most popular aluminum alloys for semi-solid automotive components are A356 and A357. The density of rheocast semi-solid A357 is higher than die cast A357 and allows for both T5 and T6 heat treatment. The mechanical properties of rheocast semi-solid A357 was found to be more dependent upon the heat treat schedule and casting soundness than by the solid content of the semi-solid slurry or the globule shape.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Lead-Free Solder for Automotive Electronics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0017
Lead-free solders for electronics have been actively pursued since the early 1990's here and abroad for environmental, legislative, and competitive reasons. The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS-US)1, the International Tin Research Institute (ITRI-UK)2, Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research (IVF-Sweden)3, Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging (JIEP Japan)4, Improved Design Life and Environmentally Aware Manufacture of Electronics Assemblies by Lead-free Soldering (IDEALS-Europe)5, and, more recently, the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI-US)6 have been aggressively seeking lead-free solutions The automotive industry has some unique requirements that demand extensive testing of new materials and processes prior to implementation. The specific steps taken at Delphi Automotive Systems with lead-free solder will be described along with the lessons learned along the way.
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