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Technical Paper

A Model-based Environment for Production Engine Management System (EMS) Development

2001-03-05
2001-01-0554
This paper describes an environment for the development of production Engine Management Systems (EMS). This includes a formal framework and modeling methodology. The environment is based on using Simulink/Stateflow for developing a control system executable specification and a plant model. This allows for simulations of the system to be performed at the engineer's desk, which is identical performance with production software. We provide the details for incorporating production legacy code into the Simulink/Stateflow control system. The system includes a multi-rate, and event driven operating system. This system is developed to facilitate new algorithm development and automated software testing. Based on Simulink/Stateflow this specification will be suitable for use with commercial automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

Maximum Electrical Energy Availability With Reasonable Components

2000-11-01
2000-01-C071
The electric power required in automotive systems is quickly reaching a level that significantly impacts costs and fuel consumption. This drives the need to reconsider an electric energy management function. Fast evolving factors such as increasing power usage, and stricter engine management and reliability requirements necessitate a global vehicle approach to energy management. Innovations such as new powernet concepts (42 volt or dual voltage systems), new component technologies (high-performance energy storage, high efficiency and controllable generators), and global electronic and software architecture concepts will enable this new energy management concept. This paper describes key issues to maximize energy availability with reasonable components.
Technical Paper

Emission Formation Mechanisms in a Two-Stroke Direct-Injection Engine

1998-10-19
982697
Engine tests were conducted to study the effect of fuel-air mixture preparation on the combustion and emission performance of a two-stroke direct-injection engine. The in-cylinder mixture distribution was altered by changing the injection system, injection timing, and by substituting the air in an air-assisted injector with nitrogen. Two injection systems which produce significantly different mixtures were investigated; an air-assisted injector with a highly atomized spray, and a single-fluid high pressure-swirl injector with a dense penetrating spray. The engine was operated at overall A/F ratios of 30:1, where stratification was necessary to ensure stable combustion; and at 20:1 and 15:1 where it was possible to operate in a nearly homogeneous mode. Moderate engine speeds and loads were investigated. The effects of the burning-zone A/F ratio were isolated by using nitrogen as the working fluid in the air-assist injector.
Technical Paper

Rapid Algorithm Development Tools Applied to Engine Management Systems

1998-02-23
980799
Intense competition in the automotive industry requires continuous reduction in innovation cycle time, even as corporations are downsizing and system complexity is increasing. Subsequently, the application of recently introduced Rapid Algorithm Development (RAD) tools has facilitated significant advances in the development of embedded control systems. The RAD steps include system modeling, control algorithm design, simulation analysis, automated calibration design, and vehicle implementation through automatic code generation. The application of RAD tools and the associated benefits are described, specifically in the context of Engine Management Systems (EMS). Such benefits include significant reductions in development cycle time, open architecture, automated calibration, and information reuse.
Technical Paper

Thermally-Induced Microstructural Changes in a Three-Way Automotive Catalyst

1997-10-01
972905
The use of advanced electron microscopy techniques to characterize both the bulk and near-atomic level microstructural evolution of catalyst materials during different dynamometer/vehicle aging cycles is an integral part of understanding catalyst deactivation. The study described here was undertaken to evaluate thermally-induced microstructural changes which caused the progressive loss of catalyst performance in a three-way automotive catalyst. Several different catalyst processing variables, for example changing the washcoat ceria content, were also evaluated as a function of aging cycle and thermal history. A number of thermally-induced microstructural changes were identified using high resolution electron microscopy techniques that contributed to the deactivation of the catalyst, including sintering of all washcoat constituents, γ-alumina transforming to α-, β-, and δ-alumina, precious metal redistribution, and constituent encapsulation.
Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

2010-10-06
2010-36-0160
One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Application of Lean Manufacturing to React to Fast Market Growth

2008-10-07
2008-36-0399
Brazilian automotive market has been growing faster than ever. In order to react properly to market increasing demand in terms of volume and diversity, production systems have to be carefully designed. Traditional manufacturing tends to react to demand increase by outsourcing or investing in new equipments or facilities. Lean thinking suggests that by reducing waste along the value stream it is possible to increase flexibility and freed resources to reduce the investment level required to cope customer’s needs. This paper presents two cases of a system redesign based on the lean manufacturing principles to support the demand.
Technical Paper

Achieving Breakthrough on Manufacturing Floor through Project-Based Organization

2009-10-06
2009-36-0333
Many companies around the world have adopted the lean thinking as their strategy to operate, in a global market where changes happen all the time. One foundation for the success of lean manufacturing appliance is the continuous improvement approach which has been considered even on company statements, or it can be also considered as part of the genetic code of any enterprise. However, if in one side the continuous improvement thinking, set people mind to look for opportunities of improvement all the time, on other hand these improvements are incremental and they do not have significant impact on company performance on both short-term and medium-term and sometimes, the activities performed by the employees are not sustainable due to the lack of structure to manage and follow up these activities.
Technical Paper

Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

2012-10-02
2012-36-0262
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables.
Technical Paper

Development of Electrical-Electronic Controls for a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0614
Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project. In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI.
Technical Paper

Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

2015-04-14
2015-01-0715
Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
Technical Paper

Barometric Pressure Estimator for Production Engine Control and Diagnostics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0206
A Barometric Pressure Estimator (BPE) algorithm was implemented in a production speed-density Engine Management System (EMS). The BPE is a model-based, easily calibrated algorithm for estimating barometric pressure using a standard set of production sensors, thereby avoiding the need for a barometric pressure sensor. An accurate barometric pressure value is necessary for a variety of engine control functions. By starting with the physics describing the flow through the induction system, an algorithm was developed which is simple to understand and implement. When used in conjunction with the Pneumatic and Thermal State Estimator (PSE and TSE) algorithms [2], the BPE requires only a single additional calibration table, generated with an automated processing routine, directly from measured engine data collected at an arbitrary elevation, in-vehicle or on a dynamometer. The algorithm has been implemented on several different engines.
Technical Paper

Globalization of the Design for Manufacturability/Assembly Process within the Automotive Wiring Assembly Business

1999-03-01
1999-01-0052
Automotive wiring assembly design and manufacturing has evolved from a locally based business to a global business. It is common today to engineer the design of a wiring assembly in one region of the world, to manufacture it in a second region, and to assemble it into the vehicle in a third region. This creates a need for global collaboration, training and communications. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) is a tool that can aid in this, in developing common processes globally, and reducing the cost and design complexity of the product in the early design stages. To develop a global DFM process, an organization must develop and implement a strategy. This paper will review the approach that an automotive wiring assembly supplier adopted. It will enumerate the benefits of developing a global Design for Manufacturability process, selecting a champion, and using a twelve-step plan to integrate DFM into each region.
Technical Paper

Concept to Production: Continuous Surface Keypad Switch

1999-03-01
1999-01-0413
The objective of this paper is to impart the challenges presented and the solutions derived to transform an artist's rendering into a production driver's door switch to be used in the interior of a high profile sports car. The challenges took many forms throughout the process, from data translation and packaging, to the final decorative issues. The results are a finished product providing a new approach to automotive interior switch design. It incorporates a low profile, continuous plane keypad with “soft touch” feel, tactile feedback, and integrated back lighting.
Technical Paper

An Expandable Passive Optical Star Network Architecture for Automotive Applications

1999-03-01
1999-01-0303
When comparing vehicle communication architectures, the passive star network has been shown to be the highest fault tolerant system. Despite this trait, the passive star architecture has not been widely implemented due to its potential application limitations: insufficient node count and relatively short node lengths. These constraints arise from the basic function of the star, i.e. to evenly distribute a given amount of optical power to all nodes connected to the star without amplification or retransmission. This paper provides a solution to overcome the limitations of the passive star through the introduction of a new communication component, the Active Distribution Node (ADN). The ADN enables a passive star network to support larger node counts and significantly longer node lengths, without sacrificing fault tolerance or the low cost nature of the basic passive star architecture.
Technical Paper

A System-Safety Process For By-Wire Automotive Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-1056
Steer-by-wire and other “by-wire” systems (as defined in the paper) offer many passive and active safety advantages. To help ensure these advantages are achieved, a comprehensive system-safety process should be followed. In this paper, we review standard elements of system safety processes that are widely applied in several industries and describe the main elements of our proposed analysis process for by-wire systems. The process steps include: (i) creating a program plan to act as a blueprint for the process, (ii) performing a variety of hazard analysis and risk assessment tasks as specified in the program plan, (iii) designing and verifying a set of hazard controls that help mitigate risk, and (iv) summarizing the findings. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers need to work together to create and follow such a process. A distinguishing feature of the process is the explicit linking of hazard controls to the hazards they cover, permitting coverage-based risk assessment.
Technical Paper

Using the Six Sigma Methodology for Process Variation Reduction

2007-11-28
2007-01-2872
This paper is about the use of the Six Sigma Methodology, to solve variation problems in the manufacture area, at one of the Delphi Automotive Systems unit that manufacturer electrical harness. The DMAIC framework was followed, the improvements were done, eliminating the rots causes, and the use of Six Sigma methodology, was showed very efficient in solve problems. The methodology power, is in using a structured frame work, the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control), completing by quality quality tools (Pareto Chart, Five Why's, Cause and Effect Diagram) and statistical analyses, for example: variance analyses, hypotheses tests and Design of Experiments.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Lidar-Based and Radar-Based Adaptive Cruise Control Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0345
Since the late 1980s, Delphi Automotive Systems has been very involved with the practical development of a variety of Collision Avoidance products for the near- and long-term automotive market. Many of these complex collision avoidance products will require the integration of various vehicular components/systems in order to provide a cohesive functioning product that is seamlessly integrated into the vehicle infrastructure. One such example of this system integration process was the development of an Adaptive Cruise Control system on an Opel Vectra. The design approach heavily incorporated system engineering processes/procedures. The critical issues and other technical challenges in developing these systems will be explored. Details on the hardware and algorithms developed for this vehicle, as well as the greater systems integration issues that arose during its development will also be presented.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Air Meter Interface Strategies for Engine Management Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0546
When an air meter is specified for an engine management system, air meter accuracy is given high priority. Air meter manufacturers characterize the accuracy of their products using laboratory instrumentation to measure the air meter output vs. flow characteristics. Ultimately the air meter is applied to an engine management system in a vehicle. The engine management system must use the information provided by the air meter without the benefit of laboratory instrumentation. Therefore, the entire measurement system must be considered in evaluating the effective accuracy. The most fundamental aspect to consider is the output signal format between the air meter and the engine management system. Two commonly available formats will be investigated: frequency and voltage.
Technical Paper

All Olefinic Interiors-What Will It Take To Happen?

2000-03-06
2000-01-0632
TPO is getting wider acceptance for automotive applications. An exterior application like a fascia is a very good example. Interiors are still a challenge due to many reasons including overall system cost. For interior applications, “all-olefin” means it mainly consists of three materials: TPO skin, cross-linked olefinic-based foam and PP substrate. The driving force for TPO in Europe is mainly recyclability while in the USA, it is long-term durability. This paper describes the key limitations of the current TPO systems which are: poor grain retention of TPO skin, shrinkage in-consistency of the skin, high cost of priming (or other treatments) and painting of the skin, lower process window of the semi-crystalline TPO material during thermoforming or In-mold lamination / Low pressure molding, high cost of the foam, low tear strength of the foam for deep draw ratio etc.
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