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Technical Paper

A Model-Based Brake Pressure Estimation Strategy for Traction Control System

This paper presents a brake pressure estimation algorithm for Delphi Traction Control Systems (TCS). A control oriented lumped parameter model of a brake control system is developed using Matlab/Simulink. The model is derived based on a typical brake system and is generic to other types of brake control hardware systems. For application purposes, the model is simplified to capture the dominant dynamic brake pressure response. Vehicle experimental data collected under various scenarios are used to validate the algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm gives accurate pressure estimation. In addition, the calibration procedure is greatly simplified
Technical Paper

Consumers, Electronics, and the Link to Hybrid Vehicles and the Environment

The interdependence of consumer features, new electronic and electrical architectures and hybrid propulsion systems are examined. There are two major forces driving future vehicle electronic and electrical systems, one is consumer demand for comfort and safety, and two is the demand for reduced fuel consumption and emissions. These forces are linked by the use of electronics to control vehicle energy generation and usage while providing managed solutions to these demands. Automobile consumer features are discussed and the case is made that these features will require more electric power to be installed on the vehicle. The presence of this increased electric power will then enable the hybrid vehicle functions that will benefit fuel economy and emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit - A Paradigm Shift in Electric Supply for Transportation

Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW have been jointly developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for application in the transportation industry primarily as an on-board Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). In the first application of this joint program, the APU will be used to power an electric air conditioning system without the need for operating the vehicle engine. The SOFC-based APU technology has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in the supply of electric power for passenger cars. Furthermore, supplementing the conventional fuel with reformate in the internal combustion engine, extremely low emissions and high system efficiencies are possible. This is consistent with the increasing power demands in automobiles in the new era of more comfort and safety along with environmental friendliness.
Technical Paper

Dependable E/E System Drivers and Application Issues

Today, electrical/electronic systems like ABS/power brakes and electric power steering are all designed to enhance, not replace a mechanical function. If an electrical or electronic fault occurs, the function reverts to the base mechanical capability. Future E/E systems, such as steer-by-wire and brake-by- wire replace mechanical linkages with electrical or optical signals as in computer networks. While these systems offer many potential safety benefits, they will require different strategies for dependability, and as with any vehicle system, they will further require that dependability be an integral part of the overall E/E system design. This paper illustrates how by-wire systems drive different dependability requirements and discusses some key technologies that are emerging to meet these requirements.
Technical Paper

Maximum Electrical Energy Availability With Reasonable Components

The electric power required in automotive systems is quickly reaching a level that significantly impacts costs and fuel consumption. This drives the need to reconsider an electric energy management function. Fast evolving factors such as increasing power usage, and stricter engine management and reliability requirements necessitate a global vehicle approach to energy management. Innovations such as new powernet concepts (42 volt or dual voltage systems), new component technologies (high-performance energy storage, high efficiency and controllable generators), and global electronic and software architecture concepts will enable this new energy management concept. This paper describes key issues to maximize energy availability with reasonable components.
Technical Paper

Variable Effort Steering for Vehicle Stability Enhancement Using an Electric Power Steering System

This paper investigates a method for improving vehicle stability by incorporating feedback from a yaw rate sensor into an electric power steering system. Presently, vehicle stability enhancement techniques are an extension of antilock braking systems in aiding the driver during vehicle maneuvers. One of the contributors to loss of vehicle control is the reduction in tactile feedback from the steering handwheel when driving on wet or icy pavement. This paper presents research indicating that the use yaw rate feedback improves vehicle stability by increasing the amount of tactile feedback when driving under adverse road conditions.
Technical Paper

Identification and Elimination of Steering Systems Squawk Noise

The problem being investigated involves a noise-quality issue on a power steering application, when a sudden change of steering wheel angle generates an unwanted steering system noise or “Squawk.” This phenomenon is mostly observed during parking maneuvers, especially at lock positions and when the hydraulic fluid reaches a critical temperature on the specific application. The objective of the work to solve this noise-quality issue was to first identify the cause and then eliminate the Squawk noise. There were several constraints: No change could be made in the properties or type of hydraulic fluid used due to specification requirements; Steering wheel valve torsion bar characteristic (torque vs. angle) needed to be maintained within specification for ride and handling purposes; and, In addition to the mentioned constraints, a high capability of noise elimination generated by the production tolerances and dispersion has been considered.
Technical Paper

CFD-Aided Development of Spray for an Outwardly Opening Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

A high pressure outwardly opening fuel injector has been developed to produce sprays that meet the stringent requirements of gasoline direct injection (DI) combustion systems. Predictions of spray characteristics have been made using KIVA-3 in conjunction with Star-CD injector flow modeling. After some modeling iterations, the nozzle design has been optimized for the required flow, injector performance, and spray characteristics. The hardware test results of flow and spray have confirmed the numerical modeling accuracy and the spray quality. The spray's average Sauter mean diameter (SMD) is less than 15 microns at 30 mm distance from the nozzle. The DV90, defined as the drop diameter such that 90% of the total liquid volume is in drops of smaller diameter, is less than 40 microns. The maximum penetration is about 70 mm into air at atmospheric pressure. An initial spray slug is not created due to the absence of a sac volume.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Impact of Localized Cooling/Heating for Electric Vehicle

The present paper reports on a study of the HVAC energy usage for an EREV (extended range electric vehicle) implementation of a localized cooling/heating system. Components in the localized system use thermoelectric (TE) devices to target the occupant's chest, face, lap and foot areas. A novel contact TE seat was integrated into the system. Human subject comfort rides and a thermal manikin in the tunnel were used to establish equivalent comfort for the baseline and localized system. The tunnel test results indicate that, with the localized system, HVAC energy savings of 37% are achieved for cooling conditions (ambient conditions greater than 10 °C) and 38% for heating conditions (ambient conditions less than 10 °C), respectively based on an annualized ambient and vehicle occupancy weighted method. The driving range extension for an electric vehicle was also estimated based on the HVAC energy saving.
Technical Paper

Development of Electrical-Electronic Controls for a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project. In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Corner System Modeling and Simulation

This paper documents the advantages of brake corner system modeling and simulation over traditional component analysis techniques. A better understanding of the mechanical dynamics of the disc-braking event has been gained through brake corner system modeling and simulation. Single component analyses do not consider the load transfer between components during the braking event. Brake corner system analysis clearly quantifies the internal load path and load transfer sequence between components due to clearances or tolerance variations in the brake assembly. By modeling the complete brake corner assembly, the interaction between components due to the contact friction loads and variational boundary conditions can be determined. The end result permits optimal design of brake corner systems having less deflection, lower stress, optimum material mass, and reduced lead-time for new designs.
Technical Paper

Two Dimensional Modeling of a Rotary Power Steering Valve

The power steering valve plays a key role in the steering performance of a vehicle. It is desirable, therefore, to have a means of predicting valve performance for the development of the steering system. This paper describes a method of applying the orifice equation to a steering valve, along with the procedure for experimentally determining the flow coefficients for this equation. Data is provided which demonstrates the nature of change of the flow coefficients through the operating range of the valve. A method for accounting for these changes is provided, along with correlation results for measured and predicted valve performance.
Technical Paper

Isolating Hydraulic Noise from Mechanical Noise in Power Rack & Pinion Steering Systems

The purpose of this report is to quantify the methodology for evaluating and isolating rattle noises in power rack & pinion steering systems. In today's ever changing market of vehicle body & suspension changes, it's very important that the correct process be used to identify the correct noise source. The results of this evaluation procedure will help sort out the difference between hydraulic generated noises and mechanical generated noises. The process used in sorting the hydraulic noise from the mechanical noise is through the use of a “standpipe”, which dampens the hydraulic reaction pulse in the hydraulic steering system. We refer to this hydraulic pulse as “hydraulic rattle”, and is often confused with mechanical rattle during vehicle evaluations. The concept of the standpipe is similar to that used in household plumbing, which reduces the effects of hydraulic hammering in the water pipes.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Start of Combustion Control Utilizing Ionization Sensing in a Diesel Engine

This paper describes the technique of in-cylinder ionization sensing in a common rail diesel engine. The technology detects in real time, the start of combustion for both pilot and main combustion enabling the fuel control strategy to change from open to closed loop, thus, maintaining the desired start of combustion for all speeds and loads. Additionally, the ionization sensing enables the ECM to truly correct for changes in ignition delays caused by as an example a change in fuel cetane number or in air, fuel and engine temperature. The conclusions are that ionization sensing improves the ability to control a diesel engine and is a feasible technology for production vehicles.
Technical Paper

Powertrains of the Future: Reducing the Impact of Transportation on the Environment

Tomorrow's winning powertrain solutions reside in those technology combinations providing optimized propulsion systems with zero emissions and no cost or performance penalty compared with today's vehicles. The recent Kyoto Protocol for CO2 reduction and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) thrust for zero emission vehicles along with the European Regulatory community, motivate car manufacturers to adopt new light body structures with low aerodynamic drag coefficients, low-rolling resistance and the highest efficiency powertrains. The environmental equation expresses car manufacturers aptitude and desire to create zero emission vehicles at acceptable levels of performance unlike limited range electrical powered vehicle products. The cheapest solution to the environmental equation remains the conventional internal combustion engine ($30 to $50 per kW).
Technical Paper

Electronic Suspension System Control Utilizing ABS System Wheel Speed Sensors

This paper describes a semi-active damping control system that responds in real-time to road and driving conditions based on body motions as determined through ABS wheel speed sensors. The use of these existing sensors for vehicle information eliminates the need for the additional sensors (e.g. accelerometers and body-to-wheel position/velocity sensors) that are commonly part of semi-active suspension systems. This technology also allows for further cost and part count reductions through the combination of the suspension and brake controls into a single electronic control unit. This paper has been previously presented in 1998 at the SAE Controlled Suspension System Toptec.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Management Using On-Board Gasoline Partial Oxidation Reforming for Meeting Super-ULEV (SULEV) Emissions Standards

This paper first reports on the benchmarking of a gasoline- fueled vehicle currently for sale in California that is certified to ULEV standards. Emissions data from this vehicle indicate the improvements necessary over current technology to meet SULEV tailpipe standards. Tests with this vehicle also show emissions levels with current technology under off-cycle conditions representative of real-world use. We then present Delphi's strategy of on-board partial oxidation (POx) reforming with gasoline-fueled, spark-ignition engines. On-board reforming provides a source of hydrogen fuel. Tests were run with bottled gas simulating the output of a POx reformer. Results show that an advanced Engine Management System with a small on-board reformer can provide very low tailpipe emissions both under cold start and warmed-up conditions using relatively small amounts of POx gas. The data cover both normal US Federal Test Procedure (FTP) conditions as well as more extreme, off-cycle operation.
Technical Paper

Modal Participation Analysis for Identifying Brake Squeal Mechanism

Brake squeal phenomenon often involves modal coupling between various component modes. In order to reduce or eliminate squeal, it is very important to understand the coupling mechanism so that the key component(s) can be modified accordingly. This paper demonstrates a quantitative method to define system mode shapes using the concept of modal participation factors. This method is implemented on a front disc brake system to identify the modal coupling mechanism associated with its high frequency squeal. Complex eigenvalue analysis is carried out and the squeal frequency is correlated. System mode shapes are then processed with an in-house program to calculate modal participation factors based on a complex MAC (Modal Assurance Criteria) algorithm. The coupling mechanism is identified and possible countermeasures are discussed.
Technical Paper

A System-Safety Process For By-Wire Automotive Systems

Steer-by-wire and other “by-wire” systems (as defined in the paper) offer many passive and active safety advantages. To help ensure these advantages are achieved, a comprehensive system-safety process should be followed. In this paper, we review standard elements of system safety processes that are widely applied in several industries and describe the main elements of our proposed analysis process for by-wire systems. The process steps include: (i) creating a program plan to act as a blueprint for the process, (ii) performing a variety of hazard analysis and risk assessment tasks as specified in the program plan, (iii) designing and verifying a set of hazard controls that help mitigate risk, and (iv) summarizing the findings. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers need to work together to create and follow such a process. A distinguishing feature of the process is the explicit linking of hazard controls to the hazards they cover, permitting coverage-based risk assessment.
Technical Paper

Flow Simulation of a Direct-Injection Gasoline Diaphragm Fuel Pump with Structural Interactions

The fluid flow in a direct-injection gasoline diaphragm fuel pump is analyzed using a multi-physics simulation program. The analysis accounts for fully coupled fluid-structure interactions (FSI), the effects of the diaphragm movement and its deformation, the FSI between the diaphragm and the fluid, the FSI between the inlet/outlet valves and the fluid, and the solid-solid contact between the inlet/outlet valves and the valve seats. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds is examined. The accuracy of the predictions for the flow rate of the fuel pump is assessed through comparisons with the experimental data, and moderately good agreement is obtained. In addition, some conclusions based on this study are summarized for reference.