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Technical Paper

Air Conditioning and Gas Guzzler Tax Credits

2002-06-03
2002-01-1958
Rising fuel prices at the pump has consumers taking a closer look at the actual fuel economy they get versus the general label values stated on the vehicle window sticker. The label values are calculated by applying fixed correction factors to the city and highway fuel economy test results. The purpose of the correction factors is to convert the results generated under laboratory conditions into values that can be expected by customers. Because of today's fuel economy labeling method, the differences between some new accessory drive component technologies are never reflected to the end consumer. For example, the air conditioning is not used during the fuel economy test. Instead it is lumped into this fixed correction factor. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the magnitude of the air conditioning compressor load as compared to some other accessory drive loads and what causes these loads to vary.
Journal Article

Analysis of Pre-Crash Data Transferred over the Serial Data Bus and Utilized by the SDM-DS Module

2011-04-12
2011-01-0809
The primary function of an airbag control module is to detect crashes, discriminate and predict if a deployment is necessary, then deploy the restraint systems including airbags and where applicable, pretensioners. At General Motors (GM), the internal term for airbag control module is Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM). In the 1994 model year, GM introduced its SDM on some of its North American airbag-equipped vehicles. A secondary function of that SDM and all subsequent SDMs is to record crash related data. This data can include data regarding impact severity from internal accelerometers and pre-crash vehicle data from various chassis and powertrain modules. Previous researchers have addressed the accuracy of both the velocity change data, recorded by the SDM, and the pre-crash data, but the assessment of the timing of the pre-crash data has been limited to a single family of modules (Delphi SDM-G).
Journal Article

Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) - Diesel-like Efficiency with Low CO2 Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1386
A single-cylinder engine was used to study the potential of a high-efficiency combustion concept called gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition (GDCI). Low temperature combustion was achieved using multiple injections, intake boost, and moderate EGR to reduce engine-out NOx and PM emissions engine for stringent emissions standards. This combustion strategy benefits from the relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of regular unleaded gasoline fuel. Tests were conducted at 6 bar IMEP - 1500 rpm using various injection strategies with low-to-moderate injection pressure. Results showed that triple injection GDCI achieved about 8 percent greater indicated thermal efficiency and about 14 percent lower specific CO2 emissions relative to diesel baseline tests on the same engine. Heat release rates and combustion noise could be controlled with a multiple-late injection strategy for controlled fuel-air stratification. Estimated heat losses were significantly reduced.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0391
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Journal Article

Analysis of E-85 Fuel for Formic, Acetic, Propionic, Butyric, Glycolic and Citric Acids using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

2008-10-06
2008-01-2509
An HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method to measure the concentration of six organic acids in E-85 fuel has been developed. A three point calibration curve is established using standard solutions of the following organic acids: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, glycolic acid and citric acid. An internal standard (maleic acid) is used to monitor HPLC system suitability and peak retention time stability. The method utilizes UV detection at 210 nm to detect and quantify the levels of each acid in E-85 fuel. Test results from nine commercially available E-85 fuel samples are reported. Analytical method validation was achieved by performing and confirming system suitability or injection repeatability (percent relative standard deviation ≤ 3%), calibration curve linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999), analysis repeatability (standard deviation < 1 mg/L) and recovery (percent recovery 91 - 102%).
Journal Article

Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning Systems Utilizing Pneumatic Variable Compressors

2009-04-20
2009-01-0539
Air Conditioning systems with reheat reduction based for energy efficiency have generally been implemented with either electronic variable compressors through active stroke control or with fixed displacement compressors through modifying the cycling set point. The present work demonstrates a unique concept of achieving energy efficiency via cycling a pneumatic variable compressor at elevated set points. The energy efficiency of such a system approaches that of an electronic variable but significantly higher than that of a fixed displacement compressor system. The cost of the system, on the other hand, is substantially lower than that of an electronic compressor. Secondary benefits include a softer start than with a fixed compressor and a considerably simpler control scheme than that required by an electronic variable compressor.
Technical Paper

Improving Time-To-Collision Estimation by IMM Based Kalman Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0162
In a CAS system, the distance and relative velocity between front and host vehicles are estimated to calculate time-to-collision (TTC). The distance estimates by different methods will certainly include noise which should be removed to ensure the accuracy of TTC calculations. Kalman filter is a good tool to filter such type of noise. Nevertheless, Kalman filter is a model based filter, which means a correct model is important to get the good filtering results. Usually, a vehicle is either moving with a constant velocity (CV) or constant acceleration (CA) maneuvers. This means the distance data between front and host vehicles can be described by either constant velocity or constant acceleration model. In this paper, first, CV and CA models are used to design two Kalman filters and an interacting multiple model (IMM) is used to dynamically combine the outputs from two filters.
Journal Article

Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

2009-04-20
2009-01-0277
Low-cost lean NOx aftertreatment is one of the main challenges facing high-efficiency gasoline and diesel engines operating with lean mixtures. While there are many candidate technologies, they all offer tradeoffs. We have investigated a multi-component Dual SCR aftertreatment system that is capable of obtaining NOx reduction efficiencies of greater than 90% under lean conditions, without the use of precious metals or urea injection into the exhaust. The Dual SCR approach here uses an Ag HC-SCR catalyst followed by an NH3-SCR catalyst. In bench reactor studies from 150 °C to 500 °C, we have found, for modest C/N ratios, that NOx reacts over the first catalyst to predominantly form nitrogen. In addition, it also forms ammonia in sufficient quantities to react on the second NH3-SCR catalyst to improve system performance. The operational window and the formation of NH3 are improved in the presence of small quantities of hydrogen (0.1–1.0%).
Technical Paper

A Strategy to Partition Crash Data to Define Active-Safety Sensors and Product Solutions

2008-10-20
2008-21-0032
Both Crash-Avoidance and Pre-Crash active safety technologies are being developed to help reduce the number of crashes and minimize the severity of crashes. The root basis in the development of new and improved active safety technologies always begins with gaining further knowledge about crash kinds and causes. The dynamics of crashes are quite complex. The evolving precursor crash situation initiated in the Crash-Avoidance time-period will vary from the imminent crash situation in the Pre-Crash time-period. As such, in order to develop the appropriate requirements for both crash-avoidance and pre-crash technologies, they must be analyzed from their respective crash data. A data-driven methodology process has been developed which partitions the field data with a perspective to crash-avoidance and pre-crash.
Technical Paper

Controller for Rapid Development of Advanced Mode Combustion Algorithms using Cylinder Pressure Feedback

2008-10-20
2008-21-0015
Worldwide regulatory demands to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants are leading to significant changes in internal combustion engines. Many engine subsystems such as fuel injection, valvetrain, turbochargers and EGR, are being changed to address these demands. Additionally, advanced combustion modes such as HCCI are being pursued to address the key shortcomings of today's gasoline and diesel engines. Cylinder pressure based control is an enabling technology to the development and application of advanced engine subsystems and a key control element for advanced combustion modes. This paper describes a tool for rapid development of closed-loop cylinder pressure based algorithms. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is an affordable, automotive grade package containing a unique architecture enabling real-time, next engine cycle combustion feedback control.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the MADYMO Full FE Human Model in a Rear Impact Simulation of an IndyCar

2006-12-05
2006-01-3659
Computer simulation was used as a complement to crash and injury field data analysis and physical sled and barrier tests to investigate and predict the spinal injuries of a rear impact in an IndyCar. The model was expected to relate the spinal loads to the observed injuries, thereby predicting the probability and location of spinal fractures. The final goal is to help reduce the fracture risk by optimizing the seat and restraint system design and the driver's position using computer modeling and sled testing. MADYMO Full FE Human Body Model (HBM) was selected for use because of its full spinal structural details and its compatibility with the vehicle and restraint system models. However, the IndyCar application imposed unique challenges to the HBM. First, the driver position in a race car is very different from that in a typical passenger car.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Journal Article

Ammonia Sensor for Closed-Loop SCR Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0919
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the dominant solution for meeting future NOx reduction regulations for heavy-duty diesel powertrains. SCR systems benefit from closed-loop control if an appropriate exhaust gas sensor were available. An ammonia sensor has recently been developed for use as a feedback element in closed-loop control of urea dosing in a diesel SCR aftertreatment system. Closed-loop control of SCR dosing enables the SCR system to be robust against disturbances and to meet conformity of production (COP) and in-use compliance norms. The ammonia sensor is based on a non-equilibrium electrochemical principle and outputs emf signals. The sensor performs well when tested in a diesel engine exhaust environment and has minimum cross interference with CO, HC, NO, NO2, SO2, H2O and O2. Previous work, done in a simulation environment, demonstrated that an ammonia sensor provides the optimal feedback for urea dosing control algorithms in closed-loop SCR systems.
Technical Paper

A Mean-Value Model for Estimating Exhaust Manifold Pressure in Production Engine Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-1004
A key quantity for use in engine control is the exhaust manifold pressure. For production applications it is an important component in the calculation of the engine volumetric efficiency, as well as EGR flow and residual fraction. For cost reasons, however, it is preferable to not have to measure the exhaust manifold pressure for production applications. For that reason, it is advantageous to develop a model for estimating the exhaust manifold pressure in production application software that is small, accurate, and simple to calibrate. In this paper, a mean-value model for calculating the exhaust manifold pressure is derived from the compressible flow equation, treating the exhaust system as a fixed-geometry restriction between the exhaust manifold and the outlet of the tailpipe. Validation data from production applications is presented.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Database for Infrastructureless Routing

2008-04-14
2008-01-1254
Traffic engineers use time-of-day travel time databases to characterize normal travel times on roads. This information is used by traffic management centers together with information from sensors in the highway to identify problems and to make alternate route recommendations. In this paper, the travel time database concept is extended to a vehicle-to-vehicle communications network for traffic and safety information, wherein the travel time database is generated and stored by vehicles in the network, and used by the vehicles to identify abnormal traffic conditions. This infrastructure-free approach is attractive due to the potential to eliminate highway sensor and sensor maintenance costs, which are major factors that limit the growth of traffic information beyond major roadways in urban regions. Initial work indicates that database storage requirements in the vehicle should be manageable.
Journal Article

Stability and Control Considerations of Vehicle-Trailer Combination

2008-04-14
2008-01-1228
In this paper, dynamics and stability of an articulated vehicle in the yaw plane are examined through analysis, simulations, and vehicle testing. Control of a vehicle-trailer combination using active braking of the towing vehicle is discussed. A linear analytical model describing lateral and yaw motions of a vehicle-trailer combination is used to study the effects of parameter variations of the trailer on the dynamic stability of the system and limitations of different control strategies. The results predicted by the analytical model are confirmed by testing using a vehicle with a trailer in several configurations. Design of the trailer makes it possible to vary several critical parameters of the trailer. The test data for vehicle with trailer in different configurations is used to validate the detailed non-linear simulation model of the vehicle-trailer combination.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Type on Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

2009-11-02
2009-01-2818
Global demand for alternative fuels to combat rising energy costs has sparked a renewed interest in catalysts that can effectively remediate NOx emissions resulting from combustion of a range of HC based fuels. Because many of these new engine technologies rely on lean operating environments to produce efficient power, the resulting emissions are also present in a lean atmosphere. While HCs are easily controlled in such environments, achieving high NOx conversion to N2 has continued to elude fully satisfactory solution. Until recently, most approaches have relied on catalysts with precious metals to either store NOx and subsequently release it as N2 under rich conditions, or use NH3 SCR catalysts with urea injection to reduce NOx under lean conditions. However, new improvements in Ag based technologies also look very promising for NOx reduction in lean environments.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0896
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
Technical Paper

Controlling Induction System Deposits in Flexible Fuel Vehicles Operating on E85

2007-10-29
2007-01-4071
With the wider use of biofuels in the marketplace, a program was conducted to study the deposit forming tendencies and performance of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline) in a modern Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). The test vehicle for this program was a 2006 General Motors Chevrolet Impala FFV equipped with a 3.5 liter V-6 powertrain. A series of 5,000 mile Chassis Dynamometer (CD) Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) and performance tests were conducted while operating the FFV on conventional (E0) regular unleaded gasoline and E85 to determine the deposit forming tendencies of both fuels. E85 test fuels were found to generate significantly higher levels of IVD than would have been predicted from the base gasoline component alone. The effects on the weight and composition of IVD due to a corrosion inhibitor and sulfates that were indigenous to one of the ethanols were also studied.
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