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Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Real-Time Prognosis of Safety-Critical Vehicle Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1497
The paper describes the development of a vehicle stability indicator based on the correlation between various current vehicle chassis sensors such as hand wheel angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration. In general, there is a correlation between various pairs of sensor signals when the vehicle operation is linear and stable and a lack of correlation when the vehicle is becoming unstable or operating in a nonlinear region. The paper outlines one potential embodiment of the technology that makes use of the Mahalanobis distance metric to assess the degree of correlation among the sensor signals. With this approach a single scalar metric provides an accurate indication of vehicle stability.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Emission Products from a Multi-Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine on Particulate Filter Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-1184
As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices. The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
Technical Paper

A 6-Speed Automatic Transmission Plant Dynamics Model for HIL Test Bench

2008-04-14
2008-01-0630
During the production controller and software development process, one critical step is the controller and software verification. There are various ways to perform this verification. One of the commonly used methods is to utilize an HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) test bench to emulate powertrain hardware for development and validation of powertrain controllers and software. A key piece of an HIL bench is the plant dynamics model used to emulate the external environment of a modern controller, such as engine (ECM), transmission (TCM) or powertrain controller (PCM), so that the algorithms and their software implementation can be exercised to confirm the desired results. This paper presents a 6-speed automatic transmission plant dynamics model development for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The modeling method, model validation, and application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

Correlation Grading Methodology for Occupant Protection System Models

2004-03-08
2004-01-1631
Computer modeling and simulation have become one of the primary methods for development and design of automobile occupant protection systems (OPS). To ensure the accuracy and reliability of a math-based OPS design, the correlation quality assessment of mathematical models is essential for program success. In a typical industrial approach, correlation quality is assessed by comparing chart characteristics and scored based on an engineer's modeling experience and judgment. However, due to the complexity of the OPS models and their responses, a systematic approach is needed for accuracy and consistency. In this paper, a correlation grading methodology for the OPS models is presented. The grading system evaluates a wide spectrum of a computer model's performances, including kinematics, dynamic responses, and dummy injury measurements. Statistical analysis is utilized to compare the time histories of the tested and simulated dynamic responses.
Technical Paper

Hierarchical Component-based Fault Diagnostics for By-Wire Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0285
This paper proposes the concept of Generalized Diagnostic Component (GDC) and presents a modular fault diagnostic strategy for safety critical automotive systems. The diagnostic strategy makes full use of hierarchical techniques, integrates the generalized diagnostic design into all-purpose vehicle diagnoses based on reconfiguration of the GDCs, and inherits the model-based diagnostic algorithms developed for Steering/Braking-By-Wire systems. The GDC-based approach simplifies the design and integration of diagnostics in complex dynamical control systems, and has been successfully implemented in an eight degrees of freedom NAVDyn (Non-Linear Analysis of Vehicle Dynamics) simulation model using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results are provided in this paper to testify that the diagnostic strategy and implementation are feasible, efficient and dependable.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Switched Reluctance Motor Technology for Electro-Mechanical Brake Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0296
Electro-mechanical brakes (EMBs) are emerging as a new approach to enhance brake system features as well as braking performance. This paper takes a fresh look at the switched reluctance (SR) drive as a possible prime mover technology for EMB applications. The switched reluctance motor has attractive potential, in view of its robustness, dynamic bandwidth and fault tolerance. An overall assessment of the approach is made based on bench performance of a prototype EMB caliper with an SR drive executing typical braking patterns. It is shown that the SR motor can provide the required overall brake actuator performance. Various implementation options are examined to lower cost, with particular focus on electronic design, control algorithms and motor position sensing.
Technical Paper

Application of Robust Engineering Methods to Improve ECU Software Testing

2006-04-03
2006-01-1600
Robust Engineering techniques developed by Taguchi have traditionally applied to the optimization of engineering designs. Robust Engineering methods also may be applied to software testing of ECU algorithms. The net result is an approach capable of improving the software algorithm in one of two ways. First the approach can identify the range of areas which prove problematic to the software such that a robust solution may be developed. Conversely, the approach can be used as a general strategy to verify that the software is robust over the range of inputs tested. The robust engineering methods applied to software testing utilize orthogonal array experiments to test software over a range of inputs. The actual software trials are best performed in the simulation environment and also via automated test hardware in the loop configurations in realtime. This paper outlines a process for applying Robust Engineering methods to software testing.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

DOE Guidelines on Hydrogen Safety

2005-04-11
2005-01-0010
Hydrogen is the most plentiful gas in the universe. However hydrogen never occurs naturally, always combines with other elements such as oxygen and carbon [1]. Hydrogen is the ultimate clean energy carrier once it is separated from other elements [11]. Moreover hydrogen can easily be generated from renewable energy sources. Hydrogen is also nonpolluting, and forms water as a harmless byproduct during the oxidation process. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential components of a hydrogen economy [2]. A catastrophic failure in any hydrogen project could irreparably damage the entire transition strategy. The safety program element delineates the steps that the hydrogen, fuel cells & infrastructure technologies program shall ensure that all projects are performed in a safe manner.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Braking Performance and Hydraulic Brake Pressure Estimation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1061
Anti-Lock Brake Systems use hydraulic valves to control brake pressure and ultimately, wheel slip. The difference in pressure across these hydraulic valves affects their performance. The control of these valves can be improved if the pressure difference is known and the valve control altered accordingly. In practice, the delta- pressure is estimated. Estimating the wheel brake pressure introduces an error into the control structure of the system, i.e. the difference between the actual wheel brake pressure and the estimated wheel brake pressure. The effect of this error was investigated at the vehicle level via simulation, using stopping distance and vehicle yaw rate as evaluation criteria. Even with large errors in the brake pressure estimate, it was found that the vehicle performance was largely unaffected.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Technical Paper

Controlling Induction System Deposits in Flexible Fuel Vehicles Operating on E85

2007-10-29
2007-01-4071
With the wider use of biofuels in the marketplace, a program was conducted to study the deposit forming tendencies and performance of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline) in a modern Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). The test vehicle for this program was a 2006 General Motors Chevrolet Impala FFV equipped with a 3.5 liter V-6 powertrain. A series of 5,000 mile Chassis Dynamometer (CD) Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) and performance tests were conducted while operating the FFV on conventional (E0) regular unleaded gasoline and E85 to determine the deposit forming tendencies of both fuels. E85 test fuels were found to generate significantly higher levels of IVD than would have been predicted from the base gasoline component alone. The effects on the weight and composition of IVD due to a corrosion inhibitor and sulfates that were indigenous to one of the ethanols were also studied.
Technical Paper

E-85 Fuel Corrosivity: Effects on Port Fuel Injector Durability Performance

2007-10-29
2007-01-4072
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of commercial E-85 fuel properties on Port Fuel Injector (PFI) durability performance. E-85 corrosivity, not lubricity, was identified as the primary property affecting injector performance. Relatively high levels of water, chloride and organic acid contamination, detected in commercial E-85 fuels sampled in the U.S. in 2006, were the focus of the study. Analysis results and analytical techniques for determining contaminant levels in and corrosivity of commercial E-85 fuels are discussed. Studies were conducted with E-85 fuels formulated to represent worst-case field fuels. In addition to contamination with water, chloride and organic acids, fuels with various levels of a typical ethanol corrosion inhibitor were tested in the laboratory to measure the effects on E-85 corrosivity. The effects of these E-85 contaminants on injector durability performance were also evaluated.
Technical Paper

Improving Time-To-Collision Estimation by IMM Based Kalman Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0162
In a CAS system, the distance and relative velocity between front and host vehicles are estimated to calculate time-to-collision (TTC). The distance estimates by different methods will certainly include noise which should be removed to ensure the accuracy of TTC calculations. Kalman filter is a good tool to filter such type of noise. Nevertheless, Kalman filter is a model based filter, which means a correct model is important to get the good filtering results. Usually, a vehicle is either moving with a constant velocity (CV) or constant acceleration (CA) maneuvers. This means the distance data between front and host vehicles can be described by either constant velocity or constant acceleration model. In this paper, first, CV and CA models are used to design two Kalman filters and an interacting multiple model (IMM) is used to dynamically combine the outputs from two filters.
Journal Article

Diagnostics based on the Statistical Correlation of Sensors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0129
The paper describes a new strategy for real-time sensor diagnostics that is based on the statistical correlation of various sensor signal pairs. During normal fault-free operation there is a certain correlation between the sensor signals which is lost in the event of a fault. The proposed algorithm quantifies the correlation between sensor signal pairs using real-time scalar metrics based on the Mahalanobis-distance concept. During normal operation all metrics follow a similar pattern, however in the event of a fault; metrics involving the faulty sensor would increase in proportion to the magnitude of the fault. Thus, by monitoring this pattern and using a suitable fault-signature table it is possible to isolate the faulty sensor in real-time. Preliminary simulation results suggest that the strategy can mitigate the false-alarms experienced by most model-based diagnostic algorithms due to an intrinsic ability to distinguish nonlinear vehicle behavior from actual sensor faults.
Technical Paper

The Effectiveness of Oxygen in Preventing Embrittlement in Air Bag Inflators Containing Gaseous Hydrogen

2006-04-03
2006-01-1188
This study examines the effectiveness of gaseous oxygen at preventing embrittlement in steel associated with exposure to gaseous hydrogen under static loading conditions. Notched C-ring samples machined from 4340 steel and heat treated to HRC 51-53 were used to test the neutrality of an oxygen-hydrogen gas mixture similar to that which may be used as a generant in an air bag inflator. The 29 percent oxygen to hydrogen gas ratio of the gas mixture was found to be sufficient to protect the steel from hydrogen embrittlement under static loading conditions. This would indicate that any steel with a hardness of HRC 51 or lower would be safe to use in gas-based air bag inflators containing a oxygen to hydrogen gas ratio of 29 percent or higher.
Technical Paper

A Study on Low Frequency Drum Brake Squeal

2004-10-10
2004-01-2787
Low frequency drum brake squeal is often very intense and can cause high levels of customer complaints. During a noise event, vehicle framework and suspension components are excited by the brake system and result in a violent event that can be heard and felt during a brake application. This paper illustrates the experimental and analytical studies on a low frequency drum brake squeal problem that caused high warranty cost. First the environmental condition was identified and noise was reproduced. Vehicle tests were performed and operating deflection shapes were acquired. The sensitivity of the lining material to different environmental conditions was investigated. With the use of complex eigenvalue method, models were constructed to obtain further understanding of the phenomena. Finally, the squeal mechanism of a drum brake system is discussed and various solution techniques for low frequency drum brake noise are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Hill Hold Moding

2005-04-11
2005-01-0786
A typical problem that is encountered by drivers of vehicles with manual transmissions is rollback on an incline. This occurs when the driver is trying to coordinate the release of the brake pedal with the release of the clutch pedal and application of the accelerator all at the same time. If not done in harmony, the vehicle will roll down the incline. While the Hill Hold function is a highly desirable feature in manual transmission vehicles, it also enhances the driving experience in automatic transmission vehicles equipped with hybrid powertrains. The Hill Hold feature supports the Stop and Go performance associated with a hybrid powertrain by holding the vehicle on an incline and preventing undesired motion. The objective of this paper is to describe the implementation of the Hill Hold feature using an electric and / or a hydraulic brake control system. The paper describes the moding states in implementing the Hill Hold function at various levels of design complexity.
Technical Paper

A System Approach to the Drag Performance of Disc Brake Caliper

2003-10-19
2003-01-3300
Among the performance concerns in brake design, drag and fluid displacement are getting more attention in the requirement definition. High drag not only affects fuel efficiency and lining life, it is also a contributing factor to rotor thickness variation and brake pulsation. In this paper, a system approach to drag performance of a disc brake caliper is presented. A one-dimensional simulation model, which considers all the significant factors, including lining stiffness and hysteresis, housing stiffness, seal/groove characteristic, and stick-slide behavior between the seal and piston, is developed to capture the interactive impact of each parameter to caliper drag performance. The system model is validated with experimental measurements for caliper fluid displacement and piston retraction. A parameter study is then conducted to investigate the component interactive impact to the drag performance.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Analysis Incorporating Contact Conditions and Other Nonlinear Effects

2003-10-19
2003-01-3343
A squeal analysis on a front disc brake is presented here utilizing the new complex eigenvalue capability in ABAQUS/Standard. As opposed to the direct matrix input approach that requires users to tailor the friction coupling matrix, this method uses nonlinear static analyses to calculate the friction coupling prior to the complex eigenvalue extraction. As a result, the effect of non-uniform contact pressure and other nonlinear effects are incorporated. Friction damping is used to reduce over-predictions and the velocity dependent friction coefficient is defined to contribute negative damping. Complex eigenvalue predictions of the example cases show very good correlation with test data for a wide range of frequencies. Finally, the participation of rotor tangential modes is also discussed.
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