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Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0391
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Technical Paper

Controlling Induction System Deposits in Flexible Fuel Vehicles Operating on E85

2007-10-29
2007-01-4071
With the wider use of biofuels in the marketplace, a program was conducted to study the deposit forming tendencies and performance of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline) in a modern Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). The test vehicle for this program was a 2006 General Motors Chevrolet Impala FFV equipped with a 3.5 liter V-6 powertrain. A series of 5,000 mile Chassis Dynamometer (CD) Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) and performance tests were conducted while operating the FFV on conventional (E0) regular unleaded gasoline and E85 to determine the deposit forming tendencies of both fuels. E85 test fuels were found to generate significantly higher levels of IVD than would have been predicted from the base gasoline component alone. The effects on the weight and composition of IVD due to a corrosion inhibitor and sulfates that were indigenous to one of the ethanols were also studied.
Technical Paper

2-step Variable Valve Actuation: System Optimization and Integration on an SI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0040
2-step variable valve actuation using early-intake valve closing is a strategy for high fuel economy on spark-ignited gasoline engines. Two discrete valve-lift profiles are used with continuously variable cam phasing. 2-step VVA systems are attractive because of their low cost/benefit, relative simplicity, and ease-of-packaging on new and existing engines. A 2-step VVA system was designed and integrated on a 4-valve-per-cylinder 4.2L line-6 engine. Simulation tools were used to develop valve lift profiles for high fuel economy and low NOx emissions. The intake lift profiles had equal lift for both valves and were designed for high airflow & residual capacity in order to minimize valvetrain switching during the EPA drive cycle. It was determined that an enhanced combustion system was needed to maximize fuel economy benefit with the selected valve lift profiles. A flow-efficient chamber mask was developed to increase in-cylinder tumble motion and combustion rates.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the MADYMO Full FE Human Model in a Rear Impact Simulation of an IndyCar

2006-12-05
2006-01-3659
Computer simulation was used as a complement to crash and injury field data analysis and physical sled and barrier tests to investigate and predict the spinal injuries of a rear impact in an IndyCar. The model was expected to relate the spinal loads to the observed injuries, thereby predicting the probability and location of spinal fractures. The final goal is to help reduce the fracture risk by optimizing the seat and restraint system design and the driver's position using computer modeling and sled testing. MADYMO Full FE Human Body Model (HBM) was selected for use because of its full spinal structural details and its compatibility with the vehicle and restraint system models. However, the IndyCar application imposed unique challenges to the HBM. First, the driver position in a race car is very different from that in a typical passenger car.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Load Distributions between Human Occupants and ATDs in Normal and Non-normal Occupant Positions and Postures

2006-04-03
2006-01-1435
In occupant sensing system development, the Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) and the Occupant Classification ATD (OCATD) are frequently used to simulate live human subjects in the testing and validation of weight based occupant sensing systems. A study was conducted to investigate the range of loading differences between these ATDs and live human subjects over various seating postures and conditions. The results of the study revealed that differences in seat load patterns could be significant, even though both the ATD and live humans are in the same weight and body size categories. Seat loading was measured using Hybrid III (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 3 year old) ATDs, OCATDs (OCATD5 - 5th percentile female, and OCATD6 - 6 yr old child), and a CRABI (12-month old) dummy. Human subjects in the same weight and height categories as the above listed ATDs were also measured.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Analysis of Transient Response and Control for Engines with Variable Valvetrains

2007-04-16
2007-01-1283
Modern engines are becoming highly complex, with several strongly interactive subsystems - - variable cam phasers on both intake and exhaust, along with various kinds of variable valve lift mechanisms. Isolated component models may not yield adequate information to deal with system-level interactive issues, especially when it comes to transient behavior. In addition, massive amounts of expensive experimental work will be required for optimization. Recent computing speed improvements are beginning to permit the use of co-simulation to couple highly detailed and accurate submodels of the various engine components, each created using the most appropriate available simulation package. This paper describes such a system model using GT-Power to model the engine, AMESim to model cam phasers and the engine lubrication system, and Matlab/Simulink to model the engine controllers and the vehicle.
Journal Article

Fuel Efficiency Improvements from Lean, Stratified Combustion with a Solenoid Injector

2009-04-20
2009-01-1485
In light of the growing emphasis on CO2 emissions reduction, Delphi has undertaken an internal development program to show the fuel economy benefits of lean, stratified combustion with its outwardly-opening solenoid injector in a vehicle environment. This paper presents the status of this ongoing development activity which is not yet completed. Progress to date includes a logical progression from single- and multi-cylinder dynamometer engines to the vehicle environment. The solenoid-actuated injector used in this development has an outwardly-opening valve group to generate a hollow-cone spray with a stable, well-defined recirculation zone to support spray-guided stratification in the combustion chamber. The engine management system of the development vehicle was modified from series-production configuration by changing the engine control unit to permit function development and calibration.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

2004-10-25
2004-01-3062
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Power Devices for Automotive Hybrid and 42V Based Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1682
With the requirements for reducing the emissions and improving the fuel economy, the automotive companies are developing hybrid, 42 V and fuel cell vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, the requirements of the power semiconductor devices and the criteria for selecting the power devices for various types of low emission vehicles are presented. A comparative study of the most commonly used power devices is presented. A brief review of the future power devices that would enhance the performance of the automotive power conversion systems is also presented.
Technical Paper

Survey of Front Passenger Posture Usage in Passenger Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0845
In 2002, NHTSA statistics indicate air bag deployments saved an estimated 1,500 lives; however, reports of occupants having serious or fatal injuries during air bag deployment appear low relative to the number of accidents with air bag deployments. To avoid air bag induced injuries, a variety of occupant sensing technologies are being developed. One of the critical logic deployment challenges faced by these technologies is whether the system can accurately determine if the occupant is in a posture or a position such that air bag deployment may result in an injury. To improve accuracy, it is necessary to understand what postures the occupants are likely to assume during a ride and how often. For this purpose, Delphi Corporation has conducted a survey to solicit opinions on the posture usage rate. With 560 responses, the frequencies for 29 sitting postures for adult passengers and 13 child postures or positions were estimated.
Technical Paper

Combustion Assisted Belt-Cranking of a V-8 Engine at 12-Volts

2004-03-08
2004-01-0569
Implementation of engine turnoff at idle is desirable to gain improvements in vehicle fuel economy. There are a number of alternatives for implementation of the restarting function, including the existing cranking motor, a 12V or 36V belt-starter, a crankshaft integrated-starter-generator (ISG), and other, more complex hybrid powertrain architectures. Of these options, the 12V belt-alternator-starter (BAS) offers strong potential for fast, quiet starting at a lower system cost and complexity than higher-power 36V alternatives. Two challenges are 1) the need to accelerate a large engine to idle speed quickly, and 2) dynamic torque control during the start for smoothness. In the absence of a higher power electrical machine to accomplish these tasks, combustion-assisted starting has been studied as a potential method of aiding a 12V accessory drive belt-alternator-starter in the starting process on larger engines.
Technical Paper

The Development of a RTD Temperature Sensor for Exhaust Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-1421
A RTD (resistive temperature device) high temperature sensor was developed for exhaust gas temperature measurement. Extensive modeling and optimization was used to supplement testing in development. The sensor was developed to be capable of withstanding harsh environments (-40° to 1000°C), typical of engine applications, including poisons, while maintaining high accuracy (< 0.5% drift after 500 hrs of aging at 950°C). The following sensor characteristics are presented: resistance-temperature curve, accuracy, response time, and long-term durability. In addition, a system error analysis program was developed with representative results.
Technical Paper

Air Conditioning and Gas Guzzler Tax Credits

2002-06-03
2002-01-1958
Rising fuel prices at the pump has consumers taking a closer look at the actual fuel economy they get versus the general label values stated on the vehicle window sticker. The label values are calculated by applying fixed correction factors to the city and highway fuel economy test results. The purpose of the correction factors is to convert the results generated under laboratory conditions into values that can be expected by customers. Because of today's fuel economy labeling method, the differences between some new accessory drive component technologies are never reflected to the end consumer. For example, the air conditioning is not used during the fuel economy test. Instead it is lumped into this fixed correction factor. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the magnitude of the air conditioning compressor load as compared to some other accessory drive loads and what causes these loads to vary.
Technical Paper

Safety Belt Fit, Comfort, and Contact Pressure based on Upper Anchorage Location and Seat Back Angle

2003-03-03
2003-01-0954
A seat belt usability study was conducted to investigate factors associated with seat belt comfort and convenience related to shoulder belt contact pressure, shoulder belt fit, and seat belt upper anchorage location. Two major objectives were addressed in this study: (1) Determine the shift in the contact pressure while changing the seat back angle and seat belt attachment points / B-pillar location by utilizing a body pressure measurement system; (2) Identify how seat belt contact pressure and fit affect users' subjective feeling of comfort. Results from the statistical analysis shows that the seat belt contact pressure increases when the D-ring moves away from the driver in the fore-aft direction (X-axis) whereas height adjustment of the D-ring (Z-axis) is not statistically significant in terms of pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

Toward an Objective Understanding of Perceived Glovebox Closure Sound Quality

2003-05-05
2003-01-1499
As an essential dimension of product harmony and craftsmanship, product sound quality has drawn increasing attention from customers in recent years. To meet this customer requirement, Delphi Corporation has been taking a proactive role in understating customer preferences, improving designs, and developing a sound quality knowledge base for this purpose. This study investigates the characteristics of the glovebox closure sound that affects the customer's perception of the product harmony and craftsmanship. Previous research has indicated that the perceived closure sound quality is affected by the spectral balance, the occurrence of multiple impulses, and the duration of the closing event. The primary goal of this study is to explore how these parameters affect the perception of glovebox sounds and to what extent. A jury evaluation was conducted with a sequence of glovebox closure sounds, which were derived from an existing recording.
Technical Paper

New On-Board Power Generation Technologies for Automotive Auxiliary Power Units

2003-06-23
2003-01-2256
Improving fuel economy, emissions, passenger comfort and convenience, safety, and vehicle performance in the automobile is resulting in the growth of electrical loads. In order to meet these electrical load demands and to meet the requirement of power generation when the engine is off, several technologies are on the horizon for on-board power generation in the vehicles. In this paper, new on-board power generation technologies based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) system, and diamond or carbon nanostructures are compared in terms power density, cost, and long term feasibility for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Identifying and Understanding Relevant System Safety Standards for use in the Automotive Industry

2003-03-03
2003-01-1293
A new generation of software-controlled vehicle systems promises to help enhance vehicle safety, performance and comfort. As these new, often complex systems are added, system safety programs are followed to help eliminate potential hazards. An important part of planning for a safety program is to understand applicable standards. This paper identifies, reviews, categorizes, and summarizes the importance of several applicable standards for incorporation in a system safety program.
Technical Paper

Case Study of Vehicle Maneuvers Leading to Rollovers: Need for a Vehicle Test Simulating Off-Road Excursions, Recovery and Handling

2003-03-03
2003-01-0169
Rollovers are an important vehicle safety issue. Various technologies have been developed to help prevent rollovers from occurring, but the evaluation of rollover resistance typically involves vehicle-handling tests that are conducted on flat road surfaces with a uniform or split coefficient of friction. The purpose of this study is to determine the precipitating events leading to rollovers by analyzing real-world rollover crashes. This is a first step in identifying and developing vehicle tests that are representative of the principal driving scenarios leading to rollovers. The sequence of events leading to rollovers was determined from 63 in-depth investigated cases in the NASS-CDS database from 1995-1999. The sequence was evaluated by vehicle maneuvers, vehicle stability, surface type, road and shoulder transition condition, posted and estimated speeds, vehicle type and driver injury severity.
Technical Paper

Field Data Analysis of Rear Occupant Injuries Part I: Adults and Teenagers

2003-03-03
2003-01-0153
Since more occupants are using rear seats of vehicles, a better understanding of priorities for rear occupant protection is needed as future safety initiatives are considered. A two-part study was conducted on occupant injuries in rear seating positions. In Part I, adult and teenage occupants ≥13 years of age are investigated. In Part II, children aged 4-12 years old and toddlers and infants aged 0-3 are studied separately because of the use of infant and child seats and boosters involve different injury mechanisms and tolerances. The objectives of this study on adult and teenager, rear-seated occupants (≥13 years old) are to: 1) review accident data, 2) identify the distribution of rear occupants, and 3) analyze injury risks in various crash modes, including rollovers, frontal, side and rear impacts. Three databases were investigated: NASS-CDS, GES and FARS.
Technical Paper

Field Data Analysis of Rear Occupant Injuries Part II: Children, Toddlers and Infants

2003-03-03
2003-01-0154
Child safety continues to be an important issue in automotive safety for many reasons, including reported cases of serious injury from airbag deployments. As a result of extensive public education campaigns, most children are now placed in rear seats of vehicles. Accordingly, a more precise understanding of rear-seat occupant protection is developing as the second and third rows have become the primary seating area for children in SUVs, vans and passenger cars. The objective of this study was to review field crash and injury data from rear seats, identify the distribution of children and infants in rear seats, and analyze injury risks in various crash modes. The database used was the 1991-1999 NASS-CDS. When looking at crash configurations for 1st and 2nd row children, rollover crashes involved the highest incidence of MAIS 3+ injury, followed by frontal and side impacts. Lap-shoulder belt usage was similar for 1st and 2nd row children.
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