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Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the MADYMO Full FE Human Model in a Rear Impact Simulation of an IndyCar

Computer simulation was used as a complement to crash and injury field data analysis and physical sled and barrier tests to investigate and predict the spinal injuries of a rear impact in an IndyCar. The model was expected to relate the spinal loads to the observed injuries, thereby predicting the probability and location of spinal fractures. The final goal is to help reduce the fracture risk by optimizing the seat and restraint system design and the driver's position using computer modeling and sled testing. MADYMO Full FE Human Body Model (HBM) was selected for use because of its full spinal structural details and its compatibility with the vehicle and restraint system models. However, the IndyCar application imposed unique challenges to the HBM. First, the driver position in a race car is very different from that in a typical passenger car.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Load Distributions between Human Occupants and ATDs in Normal and Non-normal Occupant Positions and Postures

In occupant sensing system development, the Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) and the Occupant Classification ATD (OCATD) are frequently used to simulate live human subjects in the testing and validation of weight based occupant sensing systems. A study was conducted to investigate the range of loading differences between these ATDs and live human subjects over various seating postures and conditions. The results of the study revealed that differences in seat load patterns could be significant, even though both the ATD and live humans are in the same weight and body size categories. Seat loading was measured using Hybrid III (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 3 year old) ATDs, OCATDs (OCATD5 - 5th percentile female, and OCATD6 - 6 yr old child), and a CRABI (12-month old) dummy. Human subjects in the same weight and height categories as the above listed ATDs were also measured.
Technical Paper

Component and System Life Distribution Prediction Using Weibull and Monte Carlo Analysis with Reliability Demonstration Implications for an Electronic Diesel Fuel Injector

This paper presents a methodology to predict component and system reliability and durability. The methodology is illustrated with an electronic diesel fuel injector case study that integrates customer usage data, component failure distribution, system failure criteria, manufacturing variation, and variation in customer severity. Extension to the vehicle system level enables correlation between component and system requirements. Further, this analysis provides the basis to establish a knowledge-based test option for a success test validation program to demonstrate reliability.
Technical Paper

Survey of Front Passenger Posture Usage in Passenger Vehicles

In 2002, NHTSA statistics indicate air bag deployments saved an estimated 1,500 lives; however, reports of occupants having serious or fatal injuries during air bag deployment appear low relative to the number of accidents with air bag deployments. To avoid air bag induced injuries, a variety of occupant sensing technologies are being developed. One of the critical logic deployment challenges faced by these technologies is whether the system can accurately determine if the occupant is in a posture or a position such that air bag deployment may result in an injury. To improve accuracy, it is necessary to understand what postures the occupants are likely to assume during a ride and how often. For this purpose, Delphi Corporation has conducted a survey to solicit opinions on the posture usage rate. With 560 responses, the frequencies for 29 sitting postures for adult passengers and 13 child postures or positions were estimated.
Technical Paper

Hill Hold Moding

A typical problem that is encountered by drivers of vehicles with manual transmissions is rollback on an incline. This occurs when the driver is trying to coordinate the release of the brake pedal with the release of the clutch pedal and application of the accelerator all at the same time. If not done in harmony, the vehicle will roll down the incline. While the Hill Hold function is a highly desirable feature in manual transmission vehicles, it also enhances the driving experience in automatic transmission vehicles equipped with hybrid powertrains. The Hill Hold feature supports the Stop and Go performance associated with a hybrid powertrain by holding the vehicle on an incline and preventing undesired motion. The objective of this paper is to describe the implementation of the Hill Hold feature using an electric and / or a hydraulic brake control system. The paper describes the moding states in implementing the Hill Hold function at various levels of design complexity.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis Concept for Future Vehicle Electronic Systems

As automotive electronic control systems continue to increase in usage and complexity, the challenges for developing automotive diagnostics also increase. Reduced development cycle times, the increased significance of diagnostics for safety critical systems, and the integration of vehicle systems across multiple control systems all add to the tasks of developing diagnostics for the automobiles of today and tomorrow. Addressing automotive diagnostics now requires the Tier 1 supplier to utilize a formal diagnostic development methodology. There are also opportunities for Tier 1 suppliers to add value by developing vehicle-level supervisory diagnostic strategies, in addition to subsystem and system-level diagnostic strategies. There is also a prospect to provide strategies and tools to enhance service at the vehicle level. This paper proposes an approach for Tier 1 suppliers to address diagnostic and service issues at the component, system, and vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Improving the Reliability of Squeak & Rattle Test

The laboratory test method commonly known as “random vibration” is almost always used for Squeak & Rattle testing in today's automotive applications due to its obvious advantages: the convenience in simulating the real road input, the relatively low cost, and efficiency in obtaining the desired test results. Typically, Loudness N10 is used to evaluate the Squeak & Rattle (S&R) performance. However, due to the nature of random distribution of the excitation input, the repeatability of the loudness N10 measurements may vary significantly. This variation imposes a significant challenge when one is searching for a fine design improvement solution in minimizing S&R noise, such as a six-sigma study. This study intends to investigate (1) the range of the variations of random vibration control method as an excitation input with a given PSD, (2) the possibility of using an alternate control method (“time-history replication”) to produce the vibration of a given PSD for a S&R evaluation.
Technical Paper

Interior Sensing for Automotive Occupant Safety

The industry strategy for automotive safety systems has been evolving over the last 20 years. Systems, such as frontal and side airbags, are available today on the worldwide market that provide proven safety benefits. Interest in advanced safety systems for occupant protection and accident avoidance, is focused on making further reductions in road fatalities and injuries. Interior occupant sensing systems for advanced restraint systems, trapped occupant sensing, and driver monitoring are today under intense development as part of the industry's safety vision. In this paper, we will discuss the need for and requirements of interior occupant sensing systems, as well as applicable technologies
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Field Data Analysis of Rear Occupant Injuries Part I: Adults and Teenagers

Since more occupants are using rear seats of vehicles, a better understanding of priorities for rear occupant protection is needed as future safety initiatives are considered. A two-part study was conducted on occupant injuries in rear seating positions. In Part I, adult and teenage occupants ≥13 years of age are investigated. In Part II, children aged 4-12 years old and toddlers and infants aged 0-3 are studied separately because of the use of infant and child seats and boosters involve different injury mechanisms and tolerances. The objectives of this study on adult and teenager, rear-seated occupants (≥13 years old) are to: 1) review accident data, 2) identify the distribution of rear occupants, and 3) analyze injury risks in various crash modes, including rollovers, frontal, side and rear impacts. Three databases were investigated: NASS-CDS, GES and FARS.
Technical Paper

Case Study of Vehicle Maneuvers Leading to Rollovers: Need for a Vehicle Test Simulating Off-Road Excursions, Recovery and Handling

Rollovers are an important vehicle safety issue. Various technologies have been developed to help prevent rollovers from occurring, but the evaluation of rollover resistance typically involves vehicle-handling tests that are conducted on flat road surfaces with a uniform or split coefficient of friction. The purpose of this study is to determine the precipitating events leading to rollovers by analyzing real-world rollover crashes. This is a first step in identifying and developing vehicle tests that are representative of the principal driving scenarios leading to rollovers. The sequence of events leading to rollovers was determined from 63 in-depth investigated cases in the NASS-CDS database from 1995-1999. The sequence was evaluated by vehicle maneuvers, vehicle stability, surface type, road and shoulder transition condition, posted and estimated speeds, vehicle type and driver injury severity.
Technical Paper

Rollover Crash Sensing and Safety Overview

This paper provides an overview of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses as well as a bibliography of pertinent literature. Based on the 2001 Traffic Safety Facts published by NHTSA, rollovers account for 10.5% of the first harmful events in fatal crashes; but, 19.5% of vehicles in fatal crashes had a rollover in the impact sequence. Based on an analysis of the 1993-2001 NASS for non-ejected occupants, 10.5% of occupants are exposed to rollovers, but these occupants experience a high proportion of AIS 3-6 injury (16.1% for belted and 23.9% for unbelted occupants). The head and thorax are the most seriously injured body regions in rollovers. This paper also describes a research program aimed at defining rollover sensing requirements to activate belt pretensioners, roof-rail airbags and convertible pop-up rollbars.
Technical Paper

The Auto-Generation of Calibration Guides from MATLAB® Simulink®

With the inception of model-based design and automatic code generation, many organizations are developing controls and diagnostics algorithms in model-based development tools to meet customer and regulatory requirements. Advances in model-based design have made it easier to generate C code from models and help software engineers streamline their workflow. Typically, after the software has been developed, the models are handed over to a calibration team responsible for calibrating the features to meet specified customer and regulatory requirements. However, once the models are handed over to the calibration team, the calibration engineers are unaware of how to calibrate the features because documentation is not available. Typically, model documentation trails behind the software process because it is created manually, most of this time is spent on formatting. As a result, lack of model documentation or up-to date documentation causes a lot of pain for OEM’s and Tier 1 suppliers.