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Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Analysis of Transient Response and Control for Engines with Variable Valvetrains

2007-04-16
2007-01-1283
Modern engines are becoming highly complex, with several strongly interactive subsystems - - variable cam phasers on both intake and exhaust, along with various kinds of variable valve lift mechanisms. Isolated component models may not yield adequate information to deal with system-level interactive issues, especially when it comes to transient behavior. In addition, massive amounts of expensive experimental work will be required for optimization. Recent computing speed improvements are beginning to permit the use of co-simulation to couple highly detailed and accurate submodels of the various engine components, each created using the most appropriate available simulation package. This paper describes such a system model using GT-Power to model the engine, AMESim to model cam phasers and the engine lubrication system, and Matlab/Simulink to model the engine controllers and the vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Development of a RTD Temperature Sensor for Exhaust Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-1421
A RTD (resistive temperature device) high temperature sensor was developed for exhaust gas temperature measurement. Extensive modeling and optimization was used to supplement testing in development. The sensor was developed to be capable of withstanding harsh environments (-40° to 1000°C), typical of engine applications, including poisons, while maintaining high accuracy (< 0.5% drift after 500 hrs of aging at 950°C). The following sensor characteristics are presented: resistance-temperature curve, accuracy, response time, and long-term durability. In addition, a system error analysis program was developed with representative results.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Emission Products from a Multi-Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine on Particulate Filter Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-1184
As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices. The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
Technical Paper

A Review of Solid Materials as Alternative Ammonia Sources for Lean NOx Reduction with SCR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0907
The need for improved emissions control in lean exhaust to meet tightening, world-wide NOx emissions standards has led to the development of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia as a major technology for emissions control. Current systems are being designed to use a solution of urea (32.5 wt %) dissolved in water or Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) as the ammonia source. While DEF or AdBlue® is widely used as a source of ammonia, it has a number of issues at low temperatures, including freezing below −12 °C, solid deposit formation in the exhaust, and difficulties in dosing at exhaust temperatures below 200 °C. Additionally creating a uniform ammonia concentration can be problematic, complicating exhaust packaging and usually requiring a discrete mixer.
Technical Paper

Correlation Grading Methodology for Occupant Protection System Models

2004-03-08
2004-01-1631
Computer modeling and simulation have become one of the primary methods for development and design of automobile occupant protection systems (OPS). To ensure the accuracy and reliability of a math-based OPS design, the correlation quality assessment of mathematical models is essential for program success. In a typical industrial approach, correlation quality is assessed by comparing chart characteristics and scored based on an engineer's modeling experience and judgment. However, due to the complexity of the OPS models and their responses, a systematic approach is needed for accuracy and consistency. In this paper, a correlation grading methodology for the OPS models is presented. The grading system evaluates a wide spectrum of a computer model's performances, including kinematics, dynamic responses, and dummy injury measurements. Statistical analysis is utilized to compare the time histories of the tested and simulated dynamic responses.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of R134a Emission with Various Hose Constructions

2005-05-10
2005-01-2032
The focus of this paper is to understand, from experimental data, the R134a refrigerant emission rates of various hose materials due to permeation. This paper focuses on four main points for hose assembly emission of R134a: (1) characteristics of hose permeation in response to the effect of oil in R134a and the characteristics of hose permeation of vapor vs. liquid refrigerant; (2) conditioning of the hose material over time to reach steady state R134a emission; (3) the relative contribution of hose permeation and coupling emission to the overall hose assembly refrigerant emission; (4) transient emission rates due to transient temperature and pressure conditions. Studies include hoses with different materials and constructions resulting in various levels of R134a permeation.
Technical Paper

Sled Test Results Using the Hybrid III 6 Year Old: An Evaluation of Various Restraints and Crash Configurations

2004-03-08
2004-01-0316
Data suggest that in response to substantial educational efforts, more children are being placed in the rear seats of vehicles. As this transition occurs, it is important to make efforts to optimize the performance of rear seat restraints for children. Prior to developing new restraints for children for the rear seat, a better understanding of child responses in various crash scenarios is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of various restraint systems and countermeasures for child occupants in different crash scenarios. Sled tests were carried out with a Hybrid III 6 year old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in frontal, oblique and side impact configurations. The performance of a highback and a backless booster seat was assessed. The results were compared with two standard 3 point belt restraint systems: 1. a package shelf mounted belt, and 2. a C-pillar mounted belt.
Technical Paper

Combustion Assisted Belt-Cranking of a V-8 Engine at 12-Volts

2004-03-08
2004-01-0569
Implementation of engine turnoff at idle is desirable to gain improvements in vehicle fuel economy. There are a number of alternatives for implementation of the restarting function, including the existing cranking motor, a 12V or 36V belt-starter, a crankshaft integrated-starter-generator (ISG), and other, more complex hybrid powertrain architectures. Of these options, the 12V belt-alternator-starter (BAS) offers strong potential for fast, quiet starting at a lower system cost and complexity than higher-power 36V alternatives. Two challenges are 1) the need to accelerate a large engine to idle speed quickly, and 2) dynamic torque control during the start for smoothness. In the absence of a higher power electrical machine to accomplish these tasks, combustion-assisted starting has been studied as a potential method of aiding a 12V accessory drive belt-alternator-starter in the starting process on larger engines.
Technical Paper

Logistics and Capability Implications of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle with a Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

2004-03-08
2004-01-1586
Modern military ground vehicles are dependent not only on armor and munitions, but also on their electronic equipment. Advances in battlefield sensing, targeting, and communications devices have resulted in military vehicles with a wide array of electrical and electronic loads requiring power. These vehicles are typically designed to supply this power via a main internal combustion engine outfitted with a generator. Batteries are also incorporated to allow power to be supplied for a limited time when the engine is off. It is desirable to use a subset of the battlefield electronics in the vehicle while the engine is off, in a mode called “silent watch.” Operating time in this mode is limited, however, by battery capacity unless an auxiliary power unit (APU) is used or the main engines are restarted.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure-Based Control of Pre-Mixed Diesel Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0773
Implementation of real-time combustion feedback for use in closed-loop combustion control is a technology that has potential to assist in the successful production implementation of advanced diesel combustion modes. Low-temperature, pre-mixed diesel combustion is presently of interest because it offers the ability to lower the engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The need for lowering these two emissions is driven by tighter regulations enacted worldwide, especially the NOx limits in the United States. Reducing engine-out emissions eases the need for additional exhaust aftertreatment devices and their associated cost and mass. In this paper we will describe an experimental cylinder pressure-based control system and present both steady-state and transient results from a diesel engine employing a pre-mixed type of combustion.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the MADYMO Full FE Human Model in a Rear Impact Simulation of an IndyCar

2006-12-05
2006-01-3659
Computer simulation was used as a complement to crash and injury field data analysis and physical sled and barrier tests to investigate and predict the spinal injuries of a rear impact in an IndyCar. The model was expected to relate the spinal loads to the observed injuries, thereby predicting the probability and location of spinal fractures. The final goal is to help reduce the fracture risk by optimizing the seat and restraint system design and the driver's position using computer modeling and sled testing. MADYMO Full FE Human Body Model (HBM) was selected for use because of its full spinal structural details and its compatibility with the vehicle and restraint system models. However, the IndyCar application imposed unique challenges to the HBM. First, the driver position in a race car is very different from that in a typical passenger car.
Technical Paper

An Analytical and Experimental Study of a High Pressure Single Piston Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Engine Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1504
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have been popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet stringent EPA standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. The high-pressure fuel pump is an essential component in the GDi system. Therefore, understanding the flow characteristics of this device and its associated behavior is critical for improving the performance of this category of engines. In this paper, the fluid flow characteristics in a high-pressure single-piston pump for use in GDi engines are analyzed using 1-D LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim system and 3-D Ansys Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds has been examined along with characteristics of the pump's control valve.
Technical Paper

Throttle Icing: Understanding the Icing Mechanism and Effects of Various Throttle Features

2008-04-14
2008-01-0439
Some Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) Air Control Valves (ACV) on automotive internal combustion engines are susceptible to icing of the throttle valve. Ice formation can result in an increase in torque required to open or close the valve. Laboratory studies were conducted to improve the understanding of throttle valve icing on electronic throttle control valves with both aluminum and composite (plastic) bodies over various bore sizes (4 cylinder to 8 cylinder engines). Study results indicated that ice compression at the bore and valve gap, not ice adhesion, is the major contributor to the ETC-ACV icing phenomenon. In addition, testing of parts with various bore sizes, orientations and surface cleanliness resulted in further understanding of the icing issue.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Production Applications of Hybrid Electric Powertrains

2003-06-23
2003-01-2307
In this paper, a comparative study of the production applications of hybrid electric powertrains is presented. Vehicles studied include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, Toyota Estima, Toyota Crown, Honda Civic Hybrid, and Nissan Tino. The upcoming Ford Escape Hybrid and General Motors Parallel Hybrid Truck (PHT) will also be included, although advance information is limited. The goal of this paper is to look at what hybrid drivetrain architectures have actually been selected for production and what are the underlying details of these drivetrains. Since hybridizing a powertrain involves significant changes, the powertrain architectures are presented in diagram form, with analysis as to the similarities and advantages represented in these architectures. The specific hybrid functions used to save fuel are discussed. Peak power-to-weight ratio and degree of hybridization are plotted for the vehicles. System voltage versus electric power level are also plotted and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Field Data Analysis of Rear Occupant Injuries Part I: Adults and Teenagers

2003-03-03
2003-01-0153
Since more occupants are using rear seats of vehicles, a better understanding of priorities for rear occupant protection is needed as future safety initiatives are considered. A two-part study was conducted on occupant injuries in rear seating positions. In Part I, adult and teenage occupants ≥13 years of age are investigated. In Part II, children aged 4-12 years old and toddlers and infants aged 0-3 are studied separately because of the use of infant and child seats and boosters involve different injury mechanisms and tolerances. The objectives of this study on adult and teenager, rear-seated occupants (≥13 years old) are to: 1) review accident data, 2) identify the distribution of rear occupants, and 3) analyze injury risks in various crash modes, including rollovers, frontal, side and rear impacts. Three databases were investigated: NASS-CDS, GES and FARS.
Technical Paper

Virtual Tests for Facilitating Steering Wheel Development

2005-04-11
2005-01-1072
A steering wheel is an indispensable component in an automobile. Although the steering wheel was invented about one hundred years ago and its structure has since become more and more complex with numerous innovations, documented analysis on steering wheel performance is very limited. Today, a steering wheel is not only a wheel that controls where your car goes; it also plays an important role in a vehicle occupant protection system. Therefore, many requirements have to be met before a steering wheel goes into production. With the development of computational mechanics and increasing computer capability, it has become much easier to evaluate the steering wheel performance in a totally different way. Instead of running prototype tests, steering wheel designs can be modeled virtually in various scenarios using finite element analysis, thus facilitating the development cycle.
Technical Paper

A Strategy to Partition Crash Data to Define Active-Safety Sensors and Product Solutions

2008-10-20
2008-21-0032
Both Crash-Avoidance and Pre-Crash active safety technologies are being developed to help reduce the number of crashes and minimize the severity of crashes. The root basis in the development of new and improved active safety technologies always begins with gaining further knowledge about crash kinds and causes. The dynamics of crashes are quite complex. The evolving precursor crash situation initiated in the Crash-Avoidance time-period will vary from the imminent crash situation in the Pre-Crash time-period. As such, in order to develop the appropriate requirements for both crash-avoidance and pre-crash technologies, they must be analyzed from their respective crash data. A data-driven methodology process has been developed which partitions the field data with a perspective to crash-avoidance and pre-crash.
Technical Paper

Controller for Rapid Development of Advanced Mode Combustion Algorithms using Cylinder Pressure Feedback

2008-10-20
2008-21-0015
Worldwide regulatory demands to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants are leading to significant changes in internal combustion engines. Many engine subsystems such as fuel injection, valvetrain, turbochargers and EGR, are being changed to address these demands. Additionally, advanced combustion modes such as HCCI are being pursued to address the key shortcomings of today's gasoline and diesel engines. Cylinder pressure based control is an enabling technology to the development and application of advanced engine subsystems and a key control element for advanced combustion modes. This paper describes a tool for rapid development of closed-loop cylinder pressure based algorithms. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is an affordable, automotive grade package containing a unique architecture enabling real-time, next engine cycle combustion feedback control.
Technical Paper

Interior Sensing for Automotive Occupant Safety

2002-10-21
2002-21-0031
The industry strategy for automotive safety systems has been evolving over the last 20 years. Systems, such as frontal and side airbags, are available today on the worldwide market that provide proven safety benefits. Interest in advanced safety systems for occupant protection and accident avoidance, is focused on making further reductions in road fatalities and injuries. Interior occupant sensing systems for advanced restraint systems, trapped occupant sensing, and driver monitoring are today under intense development as part of the industry's safety vision. In this paper, we will discuss the need for and requirements of interior occupant sensing systems, as well as applicable technologies
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