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Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Real-Time Prognosis of Safety-Critical Vehicle Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1497
The paper describes the development of a vehicle stability indicator based on the correlation between various current vehicle chassis sensors such as hand wheel angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration. In general, there is a correlation between various pairs of sensor signals when the vehicle operation is linear and stable and a lack of correlation when the vehicle is becoming unstable or operating in a nonlinear region. The paper outlines one potential embodiment of the technology that makes use of the Mahalanobis distance metric to assess the degree of correlation among the sensor signals. With this approach a single scalar metric provides an accurate indication of vehicle stability.
Technical Paper

A 6-Speed Automatic Transmission Plant Dynamics Model for HIL Test Bench

2008-04-14
2008-01-0630
During the production controller and software development process, one critical step is the controller and software verification. There are various ways to perform this verification. One of the commonly used methods is to utilize an HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) test bench to emulate powertrain hardware for development and validation of powertrain controllers and software. A key piece of an HIL bench is the plant dynamics model used to emulate the external environment of a modern controller, such as engine (ECM), transmission (TCM) or powertrain controller (PCM), so that the algorithms and their software implementation can be exercised to confirm the desired results. This paper presents a 6-speed automatic transmission plant dynamics model development for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The modeling method, model validation, and application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

Correlation Grading Methodology for Occupant Protection System Models

2004-03-08
2004-01-1631
Computer modeling and simulation have become one of the primary methods for development and design of automobile occupant protection systems (OPS). To ensure the accuracy and reliability of a math-based OPS design, the correlation quality assessment of mathematical models is essential for program success. In a typical industrial approach, correlation quality is assessed by comparing chart characteristics and scored based on an engineer's modeling experience and judgment. However, due to the complexity of the OPS models and their responses, a systematic approach is needed for accuracy and consistency. In this paper, a correlation grading methodology for the OPS models is presented. The grading system evaluates a wide spectrum of a computer model's performances, including kinematics, dynamic responses, and dummy injury measurements. Statistical analysis is utilized to compare the time histories of the tested and simulated dynamic responses.
Technical Paper

Hierarchical Component-based Fault Diagnostics for By-Wire Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0285
This paper proposes the concept of Generalized Diagnostic Component (GDC) and presents a modular fault diagnostic strategy for safety critical automotive systems. The diagnostic strategy makes full use of hierarchical techniques, integrates the generalized diagnostic design into all-purpose vehicle diagnoses based on reconfiguration of the GDCs, and inherits the model-based diagnostic algorithms developed for Steering/Braking-By-Wire systems. The GDC-based approach simplifies the design and integration of diagnostics in complex dynamical control systems, and has been successfully implemented in an eight degrees of freedom NAVDyn (Non-Linear Analysis of Vehicle Dynamics) simulation model using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results are provided in this paper to testify that the diagnostic strategy and implementation are feasible, efficient and dependable.
Technical Paper

Improving Cam Phaser Performance Using Robust Engineering Techniques

2005-10-24
2005-01-3903
This paper describes a robust engineering DOE (design of experiment) completed by hydraulic simulation of a Variable Cam Phaser System based on an L4 IC engine. The robust engineering study focused on the high temperature and low speed portions of overall engine operating conditions where the cam phase rates are slow and oscillation is high. The analysis included a preliminary DOE with multiple noise variables used as the control factors in order to quantify and compound the factors into just two noise levels; best and worst conditions. Following the noise DOE, a larger DOE study was completed with 16 control variables including phaser, oil control valve and various engine parameters. It was run at 3 engine rpm (signal levels), 2 noise levels, and was analyzed for 3 responses (advancing rate, retarding rate, and oscillation amplitude while holding an intermediate position). These DOE experiments determined potential gains for each design proposal.
Technical Paper

Combustion Assisted Belt-Cranking of a V-8 Engine at 12-Volts

2004-03-08
2004-01-0569
Implementation of engine turnoff at idle is desirable to gain improvements in vehicle fuel economy. There are a number of alternatives for implementation of the restarting function, including the existing cranking motor, a 12V or 36V belt-starter, a crankshaft integrated-starter-generator (ISG), and other, more complex hybrid powertrain architectures. Of these options, the 12V belt-alternator-starter (BAS) offers strong potential for fast, quiet starting at a lower system cost and complexity than higher-power 36V alternatives. Two challenges are 1) the need to accelerate a large engine to idle speed quickly, and 2) dynamic torque control during the start for smoothness. In the absence of a higher power electrical machine to accomplish these tasks, combustion-assisted starting has been studied as a potential method of aiding a 12V accessory drive belt-alternator-starter in the starting process on larger engines.
Technical Paper

Analytical Design of Cockpit Modules for Safety and Comfort

2004-03-08
2004-01-1481
This paper reviews the state of the art on analytical design of cockpit modules in two most crucial performance categories: safety and comfort. On safety, applications of finite element analysis (FEA) for achieving robust designs that meet FMVSS 201, 208 and 214 requirements and score top frontal and side NCAP star-ratings are presented. On comfort, focus is placed on Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance. Cutting-edge analytical tools for Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) avoidance and passenger compartment noise reduction are demonstrated. Most of the analytical results shown in this paper are based on the development work of a real-life application program. Correlations between the analytical results and physical test results are included. Examples of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis for climate control are also included. At the end, the road map toward 100 percent virtual prototyping and validation is presented.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Switched Reluctance Motor Technology for Electro-Mechanical Brake Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0296
Electro-mechanical brakes (EMBs) are emerging as a new approach to enhance brake system features as well as braking performance. This paper takes a fresh look at the switched reluctance (SR) drive as a possible prime mover technology for EMB applications. The switched reluctance motor has attractive potential, in view of its robustness, dynamic bandwidth and fault tolerance. An overall assessment of the approach is made based on bench performance of a prototype EMB caliper with an SR drive executing typical braking patterns. It is shown that the SR motor can provide the required overall brake actuator performance. Various implementation options are examined to lower cost, with particular focus on electronic design, control algorithms and motor position sensing.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Platform for Diagnostic Development of a Controlled Chassis System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1058
This paper discusses the development and application of a closed-loop co-simulation platform for a controlled chassis system. The platform is comprised of several software packages, including CarSim®(MSC Corporation), AmeSim®(ImaGine Software Corporation), MATLAB®/SIMULINK®(Mathworks Corporation). The platform provides the ability to quickly evaluate enhancements to existing algorithms and to evaluate new control or diagnostic concepts, making it a rapid medium for development, testing and validation. The co-simulation platform was configured with real vehicle calibration data and used to test the validity/limitations of a simple model-based sensor diagnostics strategy. Using this approach, it was possible to quickly check for performance issues and consider needed corrections or enhancements without incurring the time and cost burden associated with in-vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Application of Robust Engineering Methods to Improve ECU Software Testing

2006-04-03
2006-01-1600
Robust Engineering techniques developed by Taguchi have traditionally applied to the optimization of engineering designs. Robust Engineering methods also may be applied to software testing of ECU algorithms. The net result is an approach capable of improving the software algorithm in one of two ways. First the approach can identify the range of areas which prove problematic to the software such that a robust solution may be developed. Conversely, the approach can be used as a general strategy to verify that the software is robust over the range of inputs tested. The robust engineering methods applied to software testing utilize orthogonal array experiments to test software over a range of inputs. The actual software trials are best performed in the simulation environment and also via automated test hardware in the loop configurations in realtime. This paper outlines a process for applying Robust Engineering methods to software testing.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the MADYMO Full FE Human Model in a Rear Impact Simulation of an IndyCar

2006-12-05
2006-01-3659
Computer simulation was used as a complement to crash and injury field data analysis and physical sled and barrier tests to investigate and predict the spinal injuries of a rear impact in an IndyCar. The model was expected to relate the spinal loads to the observed injuries, thereby predicting the probability and location of spinal fractures. The final goal is to help reduce the fracture risk by optimizing the seat and restraint system design and the driver's position using computer modeling and sled testing. MADYMO Full FE Human Body Model (HBM) was selected for use because of its full spinal structural details and its compatibility with the vehicle and restraint system models. However, the IndyCar application imposed unique challenges to the HBM. First, the driver position in a race car is very different from that in a typical passenger car.
Technical Paper

An Analytical and Experimental Study of a High Pressure Single Piston Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Engine Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1504
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have been popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet stringent EPA standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. The high-pressure fuel pump is an essential component in the GDi system. Therefore, understanding the flow characteristics of this device and its associated behavior is critical for improving the performance of this category of engines. In this paper, the fluid flow characteristics in a high-pressure single-piston pump for use in GDi engines are analyzed using 1-D LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim system and 3-D Ansys Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds has been examined along with characteristics of the pump's control valve.
Technical Paper

Virtual Tests for Facilitating Steering Wheel Development

2005-04-11
2005-01-1072
A steering wheel is an indispensable component in an automobile. Although the steering wheel was invented about one hundred years ago and its structure has since become more and more complex with numerous innovations, documented analysis on steering wheel performance is very limited. Today, a steering wheel is not only a wheel that controls where your car goes; it also plays an important role in a vehicle occupant protection system. Therefore, many requirements have to be met before a steering wheel goes into production. With the development of computational mechanics and increasing computer capability, it has become much easier to evaluate the steering wheel performance in a totally different way. Instead of running prototype tests, steering wheel designs can be modeled virtually in various scenarios using finite element analysis, thus facilitating the development cycle.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Braking Performance and Hydraulic Brake Pressure Estimation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1061
Anti-Lock Brake Systems use hydraulic valves to control brake pressure and ultimately, wheel slip. The difference in pressure across these hydraulic valves affects their performance. The control of these valves can be improved if the pressure difference is known and the valve control altered accordingly. In practice, the delta- pressure is estimated. Estimating the wheel brake pressure introduces an error into the control structure of the system, i.e. the difference between the actual wheel brake pressure and the estimated wheel brake pressure. The effect of this error was investigated at the vehicle level via simulation, using stopping distance and vehicle yaw rate as evaluation criteria. Even with large errors in the brake pressure estimate, it was found that the vehicle performance was largely unaffected.
Technical Paper

Design Process Changes Enabling Rapid Development

2004-10-18
2004-21-0085
This paper will address the electronic development in the wireless industry and compare it to the electronic development in the automotive industry. The wireless industry is characterized by rapid, dramatic high tech changes with a less than two-year cycle time and an equivalent life cycle. The automotive electronics industry is working toward reducing the typical 2 to 3 year development cycle down 1 to 2 years but with a life cycle of 10 years or more. In addition to realizing the electronic development benefits seen in the wireless industry, the automotive industry places significantly more emphasis on the quality and reliability aspects of their designs as many of them are targeted toward, or interface with, safety critical applications. One of the lessons learned from the wireless industry is the development process; where the hardware selection process can be accomplished in a virtual environment in conjunction with concurrent software development.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

2002-10-21
2002-21-0035
Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model for HIL Test Bench

2009-04-20
2009-01-1139
This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software, with a focus on a closed-loop vehicle drive-train model incorporating a detailed automatic transmission plant dynamics model developed for certain applications. Specifically, this paper presents the closed-loop integration of a 6-speed automatic transmission model developed for our HIL transmission controller and algorithm test bench (Opal-RT TestDrive based). The model validation, integration and its application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Trade-Off of Handling Stability and Responsiveness with Advanced Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0812
Advanced chassis control systems enable a vehicle to achieve new levels of performance in handling stability and responsiveness. In recent work by NHTSA and others, the performance of Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems has been studied with focus on yaw stability and roll stability of vehicles on high friction surfaces. However, it is recognized that vehicle handling responsiveness is also an important aspect that should be maintained. This paper explores the trade-offs between yaw rate, side slip, and roll motions of a vehicle, and their relationships to handling stability and handling responsiveness. This paper further describes how various control systems are able to manage these motions. The paper also discusses methods to assess vehicle stability and responsiveness using specific maneuvers and measurements, and it includes data from vehicle tests on a slippery surface.
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