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Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Analysis of Transient Response and Control for Engines with Variable Valvetrains

Modern engines are becoming highly complex, with several strongly interactive subsystems - - variable cam phasers on both intake and exhaust, along with various kinds of variable valve lift mechanisms. Isolated component models may not yield adequate information to deal with system-level interactive issues, especially when it comes to transient behavior. In addition, massive amounts of expensive experimental work will be required for optimization. Recent computing speed improvements are beginning to permit the use of co-simulation to couple highly detailed and accurate submodels of the various engine components, each created using the most appropriate available simulation package. This paper describes such a system model using GT-Power to model the engine, AMESim to model cam phasers and the engine lubrication system, and Matlab/Simulink to model the engine controllers and the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Emission Products from a Multi-Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine on Particulate Filter Performance

As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices. The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Journal Article

A New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

Accurate evaluation of vehicles' transient total power requirement helps achieving further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency. When operated, the air-conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle, therefore accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation models, such as "Autonomie," have been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. However, the load from the A/C system on the engine or on the energy storage system has not always been modeled in sufficient detail. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software MATLAB/Simulink® is frequently used by vehicle controls engineers to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls.
Journal Article

Fuel Efficiency Improvements from Lean, Stratified Combustion with a Solenoid Injector

In light of the growing emphasis on CO2 emissions reduction, Delphi has undertaken an internal development program to show the fuel economy benefits of lean, stratified combustion with its outwardly-opening solenoid injector in a vehicle environment. This paper presents the status of this ongoing development activity which is not yet completed. Progress to date includes a logical progression from single- and multi-cylinder dynamometer engines to the vehicle environment. The solenoid-actuated injector used in this development has an outwardly-opening valve group to generate a hollow-cone spray with a stable, well-defined recirculation zone to support spray-guided stratification in the combustion chamber. The engine management system of the development vehicle was modified from series-production configuration by changing the engine control unit to permit function development and calibration.
Technical Paper

Combustion Assisted Belt-Cranking of a V-8 Engine at 12-Volts

Implementation of engine turnoff at idle is desirable to gain improvements in vehicle fuel economy. There are a number of alternatives for implementation of the restarting function, including the existing cranking motor, a 12V or 36V belt-starter, a crankshaft integrated-starter-generator (ISG), and other, more complex hybrid powertrain architectures. Of these options, the 12V belt-alternator-starter (BAS) offers strong potential for fast, quiet starting at a lower system cost and complexity than higher-power 36V alternatives. Two challenges are 1) the need to accelerate a large engine to idle speed quickly, and 2) dynamic torque control during the start for smoothness. In the absence of a higher power electrical machine to accomplish these tasks, combustion-assisted starting has been studied as a potential method of aiding a 12V accessory drive belt-alternator-starter in the starting process on larger engines.
Technical Paper

Logistics and Capability Implications of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle with a Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

Modern military ground vehicles are dependent not only on armor and munitions, but also on their electronic equipment. Advances in battlefield sensing, targeting, and communications devices have resulted in military vehicles with a wide array of electrical and electronic loads requiring power. These vehicles are typically designed to supply this power via a main internal combustion engine outfitted with a generator. Batteries are also incorporated to allow power to be supplied for a limited time when the engine is off. It is desirable to use a subset of the battlefield electronics in the vehicle while the engine is off, in a mode called “silent watch.” Operating time in this mode is limited, however, by battery capacity unless an auxiliary power unit (APU) is used or the main engines are restarted.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Power Devices for Automotive Hybrid and 42V Based Systems

With the requirements for reducing the emissions and improving the fuel economy, the automotive companies are developing hybrid, 42 V and fuel cell vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, the requirements of the power semiconductor devices and the criteria for selecting the power devices for various types of low emission vehicles are presented. A comparative study of the most commonly used power devices is presented. A brief review of the future power devices that would enhance the performance of the automotive power conversion systems is also presented.
Technical Paper

A Table Update Method for Adaptive Knock Control

Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
Technical Paper

An Analytical and Experimental Study of a High Pressure Single Piston Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Engine Applications

In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have been popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet stringent EPA standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. The high-pressure fuel pump is an essential component in the GDi system. Therefore, understanding the flow characteristics of this device and its associated behavior is critical for improving the performance of this category of engines. In this paper, the fluid flow characteristics in a high-pressure single-piston pump for use in GDi engines are analyzed using 1-D LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim system and 3-D Ansys Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds has been examined along with characteristics of the pump's control valve.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Database for Infrastructureless Routing

Traffic engineers use time-of-day travel time databases to characterize normal travel times on roads. This information is used by traffic management centers together with information from sensors in the highway to identify problems and to make alternate route recommendations. In this paper, the travel time database concept is extended to a vehicle-to-vehicle communications network for traffic and safety information, wherein the travel time database is generated and stored by vehicles in the network, and used by the vehicles to identify abnormal traffic conditions. This infrastructure-free approach is attractive due to the potential to eliminate highway sensor and sensor maintenance costs, which are major factors that limit the growth of traffic information beyond major roadways in urban regions. Initial work indicates that database storage requirements in the vehicle should be manageable.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements through Improved Automatic Transmission Warmup - Stand Alone Oil to Air (OTA) Transmission Cooling Strategy with Thermostatic Cold Flow Bypass Valve

The stand alone oil to air (OTA) transmission cooling strategy with thermostatic cold flow bypass valve has been shown to be an effective means of improving the warmup of an automatic transmission. Improving the system warmup rate of an automatic transmission significantly improves its efficiency by reducing losses resulting from extremely viscous transmission fluid and can allow for calibration changes that improve overall transmission performance. Improved transmission efficiency in turn allows for improved engine efficiency and performance. The improvements obtained from increased transmission and engine efficiency result in an overall increase in vehicle fuel economy. Fuel economy and consumption are important parameters considered by the vehicle manufacturer and the customer. Fuel economy can be considered as important as reliability and durability.
Technical Paper

A Reusable Control System Architecture for Hybrid Powertrains

System integration is the path to successful entry of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology into the marketplace. A modular solution capable of meeting varying customer requirements is needed. The controller must possess a flexible hierarchical architecture that insures cross-platform compatibility and provides adaptability for various engine, motor, transmission, and battery configurations. A hybrid powertrain supervisory controller (PSC) has been designed for an advanced parallel-type HEV prototype, which uses a continuously variable transmission (CVT). The controller schedules torque commands for the engine and motor and chooses the transmission ratio to meet driver demanded acceleration. The controller is organized around a state machine, which determines how best to employ powertrain components to satisfy the driver while maximizing fuel economy.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Production Applications of Hybrid Electric Powertrains

In this paper, a comparative study of the production applications of hybrid electric powertrains is presented. Vehicles studied include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, Toyota Estima, Toyota Crown, Honda Civic Hybrid, and Nissan Tino. The upcoming Ford Escape Hybrid and General Motors Parallel Hybrid Truck (PHT) will also be included, although advance information is limited. The goal of this paper is to look at what hybrid drivetrain architectures have actually been selected for production and what are the underlying details of these drivetrains. Since hybridizing a powertrain involves significant changes, the powertrain architectures are presented in diagram form, with analysis as to the similarities and advantages represented in these architectures. The specific hybrid functions used to save fuel are discussed. Peak power-to-weight ratio and degree of hybridization are plotted for the vehicles. System voltage versus electric power level are also plotted and analyzed.
Technical Paper

New On-Board Power Generation Technologies for Automotive Auxiliary Power Units

Improving fuel economy, emissions, passenger comfort and convenience, safety, and vehicle performance in the automobile is resulting in the growth of electrical loads. In order to meet these electrical load demands and to meet the requirement of power generation when the engine is off, several technologies are on the horizon for on-board power generation in the vehicles. In this paper, new on-board power generation technologies based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) system, and diamond or carbon nanostructures are compared in terms power density, cost, and long term feasibility for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Component and System Life Distribution Prediction Using Weibull and Monte Carlo Analysis with Reliability Demonstration Implications for an Electronic Diesel Fuel Injector

This paper presents a methodology to predict component and system reliability and durability. The methodology is illustrated with an electronic diesel fuel injector case study that integrates customer usage data, component failure distribution, system failure criteria, manufacturing variation, and variation in customer severity. Extension to the vehicle system level enables correlation between component and system requirements. Further, this analysis provides the basis to establish a knowledge-based test option for a success test validation program to demonstrate reliability.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Light Weight Al Spindle

The demand for improved vehicle fuel economy drives the auto engineers to look for opportunities in weight reduction of automotive systems and components. This paper presents inventions on the design and development of a lightweight spindle. In this new product, the spindle body is made from an Al alloy for a substantial weight reduction in comparison to the tradition iron spindle body. The shaft of the spindle is made from high strength steel to meet strength requirements. The design shows the unique feature of the joining area between the spindle body and shaft. The related joining process is applied to produce a strong joint between the two parts made of different materials. The testing results will be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

DOE Guidelines on Hydrogen Safety

Hydrogen is the most plentiful gas in the universe. However hydrogen never occurs naturally, always combines with other elements such as oxygen and carbon [1]. Hydrogen is the ultimate clean energy carrier once it is separated from other elements [11]. Moreover hydrogen can easily be generated from renewable energy sources. Hydrogen is also nonpolluting, and forms water as a harmless byproduct during the oxidation process. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential components of a hydrogen economy [2]. A catastrophic failure in any hydrogen project could irreparably damage the entire transition strategy. The safety program element delineates the steps that the hydrogen, fuel cells & infrastructure technologies program shall ensure that all projects are performed in a safe manner.