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Technical Paper

Development of a Common Vehicle Model for Chassis Control Design

1999-03-01
1999-01-0732
One problem with a large company with numerous engineering sites is the problem of re-inventing the wheel. Within the engineering organization several vehicle models may be developed independently even though one would suffice. This paper discusses a model that has been developed jointly by groups at three separate locations to replace all similar models used at those locations. This will allow resources to be used more efficiently and provide a common ground for control algorithm development. This model has been designed to be able to run in several different environments with minimal overhead. These environments include the dSpace rapid prototyping tool, Simulink®, PC, and the Applied Dynamics real time system (ADRTS). It also is very modular to allow for easy integration with other systems and to support open architecture. Uses of the model include hardware in the loop, controller in the loop and pure simulation.
Technical Paper

A Resonating Comb/Ring Angular Rate Sensor Vacuum Packaged Via Wafer Bonding

1999-03-01
1999-01-1043
The best features of a comb and ring device have been combined to provide an improved micromachined angular rate sensor. The use of differential combs attached to a centrally supported ring gives this electroformed surface micromachine improved signal output and temperature performance. Previous results have been reported for vibratory ring sensors vacuum packaged in solder sealed CERDIPs. Bulk silicon etching and wafer to wafer bonding, used to fabricate millions of pressure sensors and accelerometers each year, have been employed to vacuum package this new CMOS integrated micromachine. Wafer level packaging allows for MEMS chip-scale packaging at the board level. The goal of this project is to develop a low cost sensor capable of reliably functioning at temperatures between -40 °C and 85 °C. The design, modeling, process, package, performance and automotive applications of this sensor will be covered.
Technical Paper

Using Cluster Analysis for Deriving Menu Structures for Automotive Mobile Multimedia Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0359
This paper describes the cluster analysis technique and how it can be used to support menu interface design for in-vehicle multimedia applications. Cluster analysis and similar types of classifying techniques have proven effective for developing simple menu interfaces. This paper extends the use of the cluster analysis technique to a more complex system that consists of 201 generic functions. These functions are representative of those being incorporated into near-term multimedia products. Study results show promise for using cluster analysis as a tool for incorporating the user's organizational structure into the design of a complex menu architecture. Cluster analysis may also benefit the automotive menu designer by providing a means for partitioning menu tasks into chunkable units that can be easily accessed by the driver in single glances.
Technical Paper

A 360×226 Pixel CMOS Imager Chip Optimized for Automotive Vision Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0317
Multiple automotive systems are now being developed which require an imager or vision chip to provide information regarding vehicle surroundings, vehicle performance, and vehicle passenger compartment status. Applications include lane departure, lane tracking, collision avoidance, as well as occupant position, impaired driver, and occupant identification. These applications share many requirements, including robust design, tolerance for the automotive environment, built in self-test, wide dynamic range, and low cost. In addition, each application has unique requirements for resolution, sensitivity, imager aspect ratio, and output format. In many cases, output will go directly to vehicle systems for processing, without ever being displayed to the driver. Commercial imager chips do not address this wide spectrum of requirements. A CMOS imager chip has been designed to address these unique automotive requirements.
Technical Paper

Electronics and Algorithms for Rollover Sensing

2004-03-08
2004-01-0343
Rollover sensing and discrimination generally requires an algorithm that monitors vehicle motion and anticipates conditions that will lead to a rollover. In general, a deploy command is required in a time frame such that safety measures can be activated early enough to protect the occupants. A rollover discrimination system will typically include internal motion sensors, vehicle signals from other on-board sensors, and a microprocessor to execute the deployment algorithm. A supplemental signal path is used to arm the system, making it less susceptible to single point component failures. In this chapter we explore basic concepts of rollover sensors and system mechanization, rollover discrimination algorithms, and arming methodology. A simulation environment that models the performance of the system across part tolerance, temperature extremes and component age is used to estimate the scope of expected discrimination performance in the field.
Technical Paper

The Mobile Productivity Center: Starting the Portable, Voice Enabled Future of Mobile Information and Productivity

2001-03-05
2001-01-3839
The use of portable information devices is rapidly becoming commonplace. Millions of cellular phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs) are sold each year and users are becoming dependent upon them for information storage and retrieval, and for increasing connectivity and productivity. However, the use of such devices while driving motor vehicles can be distracting due to the required visual and tactile interface. For example, to read one's schedule or other information in a PDA requires navigating to the information via a stylus or jog dial, and then reading a small screen of text. Similarly, most cellular phones require numerous touch inputs to place a call or retrieve a phone number stored in the device. Delphi's Mobile Productivity Center (MPC) addresses these concerns by providing a single button activation and a speaker-independent voice interface. The MPC enables motor vehicle drivers to be productive while keeping their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road.
Technical Paper

Wafer Applied Underfill – Delivering Flip Chip to the Mainstream

2002-03-04
2002-01-1050
Flip Chip packaging has found limited use for a technology that was introduced decades ago. Its application widened with the use of underfill, a necessary constituent to minimizing CTE mismatch between the component and substrate. Its reliability has been established on laminate substrates for automotive applications, an important development in light of the continuous increase in vehicle electronic content and function. Unfortunately, the assembly process incorporating underfill is cumbersome and batch-like. Also, the adhesive strength of the underfill depends critically on the cleanliness of the die after reflow, necessitating costly cleaning equipment and complex process monitoring protocols. Hence, the process of manufacturing is not SMT-friendly. A new technology, Wafer Applied Underfill (WAU), addresses the shortcomings of the traditional underfill process.
Technical Paper

MultiMedia Entertainment: Vehicle Technology and Service Business Trends

2002-10-21
2002-21-0062
Entertainment is the “killer application” for high value telematics services in vehicles. Entertainment does not require a new, untested consumer business model: consumers have been “paying” for entertainment in vehicles for decades. Examples include purchases of audio cassettes and CDs; listening to radio advertising; and more recently, the rental or purchase and playback of videotape movies in the rear seat. Today, technology advances in digital satellite broadcasting, digital compression, mass data storage, and broadband wireless communications are driving very dynamic business opportunities for entertainment service delivery to vehicles. Obvious examples are XM and Sirius Radio, DVD movies, rear seat video games, and MP3 audio playback from flash memory or hard disc drives. A more advanced example is the direct sale and download of compressed digital audio, video, and game software via wireless links that bypass the conventional bricks and mortar retail business.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Verification of Customer Interfaces in Automotive Component Manufacturing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0376
The best efforts to create a highly engineered, technologically advanced, and elegant automotive component will be lost if the component does not physically fit into the customer's vehicle at the assembly plant. One of the principles of mechanical verification (also called poka-yoke or error proofing) is that every part is verified every time. Mechanical verification is not based on statistical sampling, and it is not the same thing as, nor is it designed to reintroduce, incoming inspection. In this paper we will discuss some of the methods used at Delphi Delco Electronics to mechanically verify customer interfaces without adding labor or processes to the production line. Most of the methods used are very “low tech,” and they are based on common sense. We will also go beyond the verification methods used and discuss the process we used to implement a mechanical verification system.
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