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Technical Paper

Soot formation/oxidation and fuel-vapor concentration in a DI diesel engine using laser-sheet imaging method

2000-06-12
2000-05-0078
Four kinds of optical measurements were performed to investigate the process of soot formation and oxidation in a direct-injection (DI) diesel engine. Measurements were carried out in an optically accessible DI diesel engine that allows planar laser sheet for combustion diagnostics to enter the combustion chamber either horizontally or along the axis of the fuel jet. The temporal and spatial distribution of soot particles has been investigated using the laser- induced incandescence (LII) and high-speed direct photography. Fuel vapor concentration, which is directly linked to the soot formation process in diesel combustion, has been deduced from the images obtained by the measurements of laser shadowgraph and elastic Mie scattering. According to the experimental results, soot formation begins to occur near the injector nozzle in which a fuel-rich mixture is distributed with a homogeneous condition. LII signal is dominated by the fuel vapor concentration in initial combustion period.
Technical Paper

Mixing and soot formation processes in transient gas jet flame

2000-06-12
2000-05-0075
A transient gas jet and its flame are the most fundamental phenomena of a transient spray and its flame breaking out in a CI engine and an SI engine with the direct injection system. In the case of CNG and LNG engines, the fuel itself is just gaseous state. The 2-LIF technique was applied to the transient gas jet to obtain the mixing process between the surroundings and it, and the simultaneous application of LII and LIS techniques were applied to the transient gas jet flame to obtain the soot formation process.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration of Fuel Mixed with High Volatility Component and Low Volatility Component

2010-10-25
2010-01-2274
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research.
Technical Paper

Flow Characteristics in Transient Gas Jet

1995-02-01
950847
The combustion of a diesel spray includes very complex processes, that is, atomization, evaporation, diffusion, turbulent mixing and burning. On the other hand, there are no phenomena of atomization and evaporation in the combustion of a transient gas jet. However, the latter jet can be treated as a fundamental of the former spray. From the standpoint mentioned above, acetylene gas was injected into the ambient during short duration as a transient gas jet and its flow characteristics were investigated by means of photography with a sheet of laser light and LDV to detect the turbulent vortex generated in the boundary layer between it and surroundings, in the experiments presented here. And the experimental results show that the jet itself is divided into four peculiar regions and the modelling of each region is carried out by use of the results to understand the mixture formation process owing to the turbulent diffusive mixing.
Technical Paper

Effect of Octane Rating and Charge Stratification on Combustion and Operating Range with DI PCCI Operation

2007-01-23
2007-01-0053
A single cylinder engine has been run with direct-injection premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation. The operation is fueled with primary reference fuels for a wide variety of injection timing and equivalence ratio to investigate the effect of charge stratification and octane rating on PCCI combustion. The test results showed that although the change of the injection timing can gain the high combustion efficiency for a wide range of equivalence ratio, the combustion phasing where the high combustion efficiency is accomplished is not varied only by changing the injection timings. Therefore, the only change of injection timings does not improve the thermal efficiency which is influenced by the combustion phasing. On the other hand, at the fixed compression ratio, inlet air temperature and so on, the octane rating is useful in altering the combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Controlling PCCI Combustion with Mixed Fuel - Application of Flashing Spray to Early Injection

2007-04-16
2007-01-0624
A diesel engine operating in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) mode promises the reduction of engine-out emissions of NOx and particulate matter. A serious issue for PCCI operation with the early injection timing during the compression stroke is the difficulty of controlling the mixture formation process. In this study, a mixed fuel consisting of high volatility fuel and high ignitability one is applied in order to develop a control technique for the mixture preparation. In particular, we focuses on a flash boiling phenomenon of mixed fuel. For pure substance, the quality of flashing spray is dominated by the degree of superheat. In contrast, that of mixed fuel is affected much by low boiling point fuel.
Technical Paper

Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

1992-02-01
920697
It is unavoidable that a DI diesel engine exhausts a blue and white smoke at starting, especially in the cold atmosphere. In the experiments presented here, a small DI diesel engine started under the conditions of coolant and suction air whose minimum temperatures were 255 K and 268 K, respectively. The flame was photographed by high-speed photography, the temperature of flame and the soot concentration were measured by two-color method, and CO2 concentration was detected by luminous method. The engine cannot be started over several cycles when the coolant temperature is 255 K and suction air temperature is 268 K. As the temperature of coolant and suction air are decreasing, the maxima of the cylinder pressure, the flame temperature, the soot concentration and CO2 concentration are decreasing. Luminous small dots or small lumps of flame become scattered in the piston cavity.
Technical Paper

Knocking Phenomena in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

1992-02-01
920064
In this study, a rapid compression and expansion machine(RCEM) with a pancake combustion chamber was designed to investigate fundamentally on the knocking phenomena in spark ignition(S.I) engines. This RCEM is intended to simulate combustion in an actual engine. The homogeneous pre-mixture of n-pentane and air was charged into a quiescent atmosphere of the chamber. Then, the combustion field become simpler in this machine than it in a real S.I. engine. Also, the combustion phenomena, that is a cylinder pressure history, the behavior of flame propagation and so on, with high reproducibility are realized in this machine. The phenomena caught in this experiment were so-called low speed knocking. And, this knocking characteristics such as a knock intensity and a knock mass fraction were revealed by the cylinder pressure analysis varying the charge pressure and the equivalence ratio of the mixture, a compression ratio and an ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Atomization of Spray under Low-Pressure Field from Pintle Type Gasoline Injector

1992-02-01
920382
This paper presents an atomization mechanism of a spray injected into the low-pressure field, as the subject of injection system in a suction manifold of gasoline engine. Pure liquid fuel, which is n-Pentane or n-Hexane is injected into quiescent gaseous atmosphere at room-temperature and low- pressure through pintle type electronic control injector. Fuel sprays are observed by taking photographs for variation of the back pressure and the changes in spray characteristics with the back pressure below atmospheric pressure are examined in detail. In particular, in the case of the back pressure below the saturated vapor pressure of fuel, the atomization mechanism is discussed from a viewpoint of flash boiling phenomena, those are bubble growth rate and so on.
Technical Paper

Vizualization of Evaporative Diesel Spray Impinging Upon Wall Surface by Exciplex Fluorescence Method

1992-02-01
920578
A single diesel spray of n-decane which was miscible with a small quantity of exciplex dopants was injected from a hole nozzle into a quiescent high-temperature and high-pressure atmosphere of nitrogen, and was impinged in a normaldirection upon a flat wall with elevated temperature. This experiment was to serve as a simplified model of the actual state in a combustion chamber of diesel engines. When a thin sheet of laser light from Nd:YAG laser is passing through the cross section of this spray containing its central axis, it is able to generate fluorescent emissions from vapor and liquid phases in this evaporating spray. Then, clear 2-dimensional images concerning the concentration distributions of vapor and liquid phases were obtained simultaneously, by an exciplex fluorescence method using an image-intensifier and a CCD camera system. The dispersion processes of vapor and liquid phases in this impinging spray near the wall were analyzed with an image analyzer.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Spray Impingement on a Flat Wall

1994-10-01
941894
This paper presents an analysis using a model of the dispersion process of a Diesel spray impinging on a flat wall. The objective is to simulate the spray / wall interaction process inside Diesel engines. This analysis has two parts: one for non - evaporative spray and the other for evaporative spray. For the non - evaporative spray analysis, a single spray of n - tridecane was injected at high - pressure from a single hole nozzle into a quiescent atmosphere at room - temperature. The spray impinged vertically on the wall at room temperature. Thus, the wall temperature Tw was less than the saturation temperature Tsat of the fuel, that is the boiling temperature. A new submodel including fuel film formation on the wall, its breakup process due to droplet impingement and the dispersion process of breakup - droplets was developed. Also, the droplet density distribution was measured experimentally by the laser light extinction method.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Atomization Process in Flash Boiling Spray

1994-10-01
941925
This paper presents the analysis of atomization and vaporization processes in a flash boiling spray based on experimental results obtained from injection systems in the suction manifold of a gasoline engine. Two kinds of liquid fuel, n-Pentane and n-Hexane, were injected into quiescent atmosphere at room-temperature and low-pressure through a pintle type injector with electronic control. The spray characteristics of both fuels below various atmospheric pressures were investigated in detail by taking photography. Then, in the region of flash boiling, where the back pressure was below the saturated vapor pressure of fuel, the bubble nucleation process due to the flash boiling was modelled by both the measurement results of bubble and the nucleation rate equation using the degree of superheat of the liquid fuel.
Technical Paper

New Concept on Lower Exhaust Emission of Diesel Engine

1995-09-01
952062
One of countermeasures for exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, especially, DI diesel engine, is the use of a super high pressure injection system with a small hole diameter. However, the system needs greater driving force than that with normal injection pressure, and its demerit is increase in NOx, although soot is decreasing. Then, authors propose the new concept on the simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot. The concept is that the utilization of flash boiling phenomenon in a diesel engine. The phenomenon can be realized by use of the injection of fuel oil with CO2 gas dissolved. Flash boiling facilitates the distinguished atomization of fuel oil and CO2 gas contributes to realizes the internal EGR during combustion. Fundamental information on the characteristics of a flash boiling spray of n-tridecane with CO2 gas dissolved is described in this paper, as a first step.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Study on Ignition Characteristics of Two-Component Fuel in a Diesel Spray

2006-10-16
2006-01-3383
The authors have explored the potential of fuel to control spray and its combustion processes in a diesel engine. Fuel has some potential for low emission and high thermal efficiency because its volatility and ignitability are one of the ultimate performing factors of the engines. In present study, the ignition process of mixed fuel spray was investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel and in a rapid compression and expansion machine, The ignition delay based on the diagram of rate of the heat release, the imaging of natural flame emissions and the numerical simulation were carried out to clarify the effect of the physical and chemical properties of mixed fuel on ignition characteristics.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Reformulated Biodiesel with Mixing of Lower Boiling Point Fuel

2007-04-16
2007-01-0621
Authors propose the reformulation technique of physical properties of Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) by mixing lower boiling point fuels. In this study, waste cooking oil methyl ester (B100), which have been produced in Kyoto city, is used in behalf of BDF. N-Heptane (C7H16) and n-Dodecane (C12H26) are used as low and medium boiling point fuel. Mixed fuel of BDF with lower boiling point fuels have lighter quality as compared with neat BDF. This result is based on the chemical-thermo dynamical liquid-vapor equilibrium theory. This paper describes fundamental spray and combustion characteristics of mixed fuel of B100 with lower boiling point fuels as well as the reformulation technique. By mixing lower boiling point fuel, lighter quality fuels can be refined. Thus, mixed fuels have higher volatility and lower viscosity. Therefore, vaporization of mixed fuel spray is promoted and liquid phase penetration of mixed fuel shortens as compared with that of neat BDF.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking Mechanism Applying the Chemical Luminescence Method

1995-02-01
951005
One of the most effective means of improving the thermal efficiency and the specific fuel consumption in spark ignition engines is the increase of the compression ratio. However, there is a limit to it because of the generation of knocking combustion due to the rise of temperature and pressure in the unburnt mixture. Also in turbo charged spark ignition engines, the ignition timing cannot be advanced until MBT in order to avoid the knocking phenomena. Generally speaking, it is very difficult to investigate the phenomena in an actual engine, because there are many restriction and the phenomena are too complex and too fast. According-ly, it is advantageous to reveal the phenomena fundamentally, including the autoignition process of the end-gas by using simplified model equipment. Therefore, a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) with a pan-cake combustion chamber was designed and developed for the experiments presented here.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Gas Properties for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970352
In this paper, spray characteristics were examined to deduce the effect of ambient gas properties. Considered ambient properties were the viscosity μa and density ρa, and thus the kinematic viscosity νa. The objective of this paper is to reveal the effect of compressibility of the ambient gas to spray formation. In the experiments, the changed ranges were And a standard-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.25 mm (ln/dn=3.0) was used at constant injection pressure difference (Δp=16.2 MPa). Also the injection pressure was varied in the range of 55 to 120 MPa with a mini-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.20 mm (ln/dn =5.5). Several different gases were used to change the ambient viscosity at a room temperature. From the experiments, it is obtained that larger the viscosity, the more the spray spreads in the radial direction, thus the spray angle gets larger and the tip penetration became shorter.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

1997-02-24
970641
This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Detection of Luminescence from Pre-Autoignition Reaction Zone in S.I. Engine

1997-02-24
970508
Knocking phenomenon in a spark ignition engine breaks out due to autoignition in the unburned gas region. Investigation on the pre-autoignition reaction, that is, the reaction of cool and blue flames happening before autoignition must be carried out in detail to control knocking. The reactions appear in an extremely short time before autoignition, so, much difficulties accompany an attempt to grasp the situation. In the experiments presented hear, progress situation of pre-autoignition reaction was made clear by visualized phenomena in a rapid compression and expansion machine (R.C.E.M), which had good reproducibility. Taken by two ultra high-speed video cameras. We determined the ignition delay time was caught by analyzing the emission of light from the combustion chamber before knocking occurrence.
Technical Paper

CO2 Mixed Fuel Combustion System for Reduction of NO and Soot Emission in Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970319
We propose a new concept on simultaneous reduction of NO and soot emissions in Diesel engine exhaust by the diesel fuel oil (n-Tridecane) with liquefied CO2 dissolved. The CO2 dissolved fuel is expected to undergo flash boiling or gas separation when being injected into the combustion chamber and improve spray atomization and mixing process both of which are primary factors to govern soot formation. Also the internal EGR effect caused by CO2 injected with the fuel is expected to NO formation. In order to assess this concept, combustion experiments were carried out using a rapid compression and expansion machine. Thus, flame characteristics and heat release rate were analyzed for the combustion process of diesel fuel and CO2 mixed fuel. And, it is revealed that the diesel fuel-liquefied CO2 mixed fuel can successfully reduce NO emission in a diesel combustion system.
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