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Technical Paper

Effects of Temperature and Crack Tip Opening Rate on Fracture Behavior of CNBR Modified Epoxy Adhesives Under Mode I Loading

1997-02-24
970661
The effects of temperature, crack tip opening rate and rubber content on static fracture characteristics of CNBR (Cross-linked acryloNitrile Butadiene Rubber) modified epoxy adhesives were investigated under mode I loading. Loading-unloading tests were statically performed by using DCB (Double Cantilever Beam) specimens. The fracture toughness increased with increasing the rubber content. The fracture toughness of CNBR modified and unmodified epoxy adhesives was much influenced by temperature and crack tip opening rate. The surface topology of fractured surface was changed by temperature and type of adhesive.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

1997-02-24
970641
This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

A Study on a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT (Part 4: Forces Act on Metal Blocks when the Speed Ratio is Changing)

1995-02-01
950671
Six forces act on the block of a metal pushing V-belt. Previously, we successfully measured these forces at steady states using devised blocks and a telemeter system. In this paper, six forces are measured using the same testing and measuring systems at transitional states where a speed ratio varies from low to high, or vice versa. The experimental results reveal that distributions of four forces at transitional states except normal and frictional forces between rings and blocks are different in shape from those at steady states.
Technical Paper

A Simple Modeling for Analyzing the Load Distribution of Toothed Belts Under Fluctuating Torque Loading

1995-02-01
950542
It is very important to know the load distribution in pulleys to predict the life of toothed belts. In this study, a simple model consists of springs and friction elements has been developed for numerical analysis of the load distribution. A sample problem with steady pulley motion for a two pulley system was analyzed. The analytical result was compared with the experimental result. It was also compared with the numerical result by the alternative model using FEM. Relatively good agreements between them were obtained. A typical problem for the two pulley system subjected to fluctuating torque loadings was also analyzed by the present model. The calculated result shows a large difference in tooth load distribution between the steady state case and the unsteady state one.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray Impinging on a Flat Wall by Means of Exciplex Fluorescence Method -In Case of High Injection Pressure-

1997-10-01
972916
Diesel sprays injected into a combustion chamber of a small sized high-speed CI engine impinge surely on a piston surface and a cylinder wall. As a consequence, their vaporization, mixture formation and combustion processes are affected by impingement phenomena. And the other important factors affecting on the processes is the injection pressure. Then, the distribution of the vapor concentration in a single diesel spray impinging on a flat and hot wall was experimented by the exciplex fluorescence method, as a simple case. The injection pressure was varied in the range from 55 MPa to 120 MPa. It is found that the distribution of the vapor concentration in this case is much leaner than that in the case of the low injection pressure of 17.8MPa.
Technical Paper

Study on Thermo-plastic Deformation for One-Piece Brake Disks

1998-02-23
980593
Braking tests under overloading were carried out using large one-piece brake disks having eyebrow-shaped holes as decoration. When the number of braking cycles was more than five, permanent deflection of the disks was observed. When the number of braking cycles was less than six, no appreciable deflection occured. The experiment revealed that such deflection occurrs during the cooling process after the final braking cycle. The mechanism for this phenomenon is explained based on the deflection-time record in conjunction with the temperature distribution of disks and its variation with respect to time. The key for this phenomenon is yielding in tension at the bridges between holes. The deflection occurs due to elastic-plastic buckling caused by shrinkage of the flange. Numerical simulations were successfully conducted by using a general 3D FEM in consideration of geometrical and material non-linearities.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT-Part 2: Compression Force Between Metal Blocks and Ring Tension

1993-03-01
930667
In this study, distributions of block compression force on the driving and driven pulleys were measured using a tiny load-cell inserted between two blocks and a telemeter system, under several constant speed ratios. Ring tension distributions were also measured using a specially devised block. From the experimental results, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Block compression force distribution on the driving pulley is significantly different from that on the driven pulley. (2) Ring tension takes different value at each side of strings. It is considered that this phenomenon is caused by difference of saddle surface speed between two pulleys.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration of Fuel Mixed with High Volatility Component and Low Volatility Component

2010-10-25
2010-01-2274
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research.
Technical Paper

Modification of Strain Distribution on Contact Surface of Shoe to Reduce Low Frequency Squeals for Brake Disc with Small Holes

2010-10-10
2010-01-1715
The purpose of this study is to propose an effective model to estimate the excitation force accompanied with stick-slip between shoe and disc, considering the strain distribution on contact surface of the shoe, and then to propose an effective concept to design the brake which reduced the brake squeal under practical use. In order to investigate the influence of configuration of the hole, three types of discs were prepared in which the size of holes was different. The SPL (Sound Pressure Level) and the frequency of squeal for three types of discs were measured when the brake squeal was observed at conditions of low sliding speed. The change of stability of the brake shoe passing on hole was analyzed by 2-D simplified brake system model.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Research on Unsteady Pre-mixed Combustion in Non-Uniform Distribution of Fuel Concentration

2001-09-24
2001-01-3487
It is significant for understanding the phenomena in a stratified charge engine and an SI engine with direct injection system to carry out the fundamental research. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume chamber with atmospheric condition. The pre-mixed charge composed of ethylene and air was charged with various equivalence ratio, the second charge with the same composition was injected into the chamber, thereafter, the combustion started by a spark plug. The phenomena were analyzed by use of the experimental results of shadowgraph, [OH] natural emission, pressure history and NOx and UHC in the exhaust gas.
Journal Article

Vibration Behavior Analysis of Tire Bending Mode Exciting Lateral Axial Forces

2013-05-13
2013-01-1911
The demand to reduce noise in the passenger cars is increasing. Tire vibration characteristics must be considered when studying road noise because of the strong interaction between tire vibration characteristics and interior car noise. Car manufacturers are keenly interested in studies on the prediction of NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance, including viewing tires as substructure. Recently, studies have illustrated the effect that tire lateral bending mode have has on road noise, while most past studies of tire vibration focused on the circumference mode, which excited the vertical spindle force. Therefore, further study of tire lateral bending mode is necessary. Modeling of the tire lateral bending mode is described in this paper. First, lateral spindle force is measured under tire rolling conditions. Second, experimental modal analysis is performed to grasp tire lateral bending mode. Finally, a tire vibration model is built using the cylindrical shell theory.
Journal Article

Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

2017-10-08
2017-01-2375
In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera.
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