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Technical Paper

Effect of ADOIL TAC Additive on Diesel Combustion

Some papers on the combustion in a diesel engine have been already presented to discuss the effect of the additive called ADOIL TAC. A bottom view DI diesel engine driven at 980rpm with no load was used in the experiment presented here, in order to make clear this effect. JIS second class light diesel fuel oil was injected through a hole nozzle at the normal test run. The additive was intermixed 0.01 vol. % in this fuel oil, in the experiments to compare with the normal combustion. The flame was taken by direct high-speed photography. Profiles of flame temperature and KL were detected on the film by image processing, applying the two-color method. Soot was visualized by high-speed laser shadowgraphy, and the heat release rate was calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. Discussion on the effect of the additive on the combustion phenomena was made by using all the data.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Spindle Force Using Measured Road Forces on Rolling Tire

Improvement of vehicle interior noise is desired in recent years in the modern world of the demand of low weight, good fuel economy and offering technical advantages strongly. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We focus on structure-borne noise transferred through the spindle. It is necessary for effort of the effective tire/road noise reduction to predict spindle force excited by tire/road contact. The major issues in predicting spindle forces are to clarify the distribution of road forces and how to input on the simulation model. Therefore, it is important that road forces are measured accurately on the rolling tire. First, the dynamic road forces on the rolling tire are measured by using the tri-axial force sensor directly. In efforts to reduce interior noise due to structure-borne noise, it is necessary to predict spindle forces excited by the tire/road contact.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling and Laser Diagnostics of Soot Formation Process in Diesel Jet Flame

This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
Technical Paper

A Measures Planning Method by Analysis of Contribution of the Vibration Transfer Path

This paper describes a proposal of techniques on Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) to analyze transmission of vibration among the components in a complex structure. This proposal is evolved from the previous one [1] in the dimension which dominates the quality of the analysis in automotive body structure by TPA. The proper coordinate transformation was introduced to resolve the troublesome process on the application of the body structure in the previous proposal. The complications are caused by the treatment with a lot of transfer functions and transmitted forces at the conjunctions that are complexly assembled with many adjacent nodes. Dimension of the analytical region is expanded from two to three in this study. That is, from the cross section of interface of components to the structure itself where the vibration transmits between two components.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Diesel Combustion System by Use of Reformulated Fuel with Liquefied CO2 and n-Tridecane

We propose a new concept on simultaneous reduction of NO and soot emissions in Diesel engine exhaust by use of the diesel fuel oil (n-Tridecane) with liquefied CO2 dissolved. The CO2 dissolved component is expected to undergo flash boiling or gas separation when being injected into the combustion chamber, and improve spray atomization and mixing process both of which are primary factors to govern soot formation. Further, the internal EGR effect caused by CO2 component injected with the fuel is expected for NO formation. In order to assess this concept, spray dynamics measurement was conducted in the constant volume vessel with a variation of ambient pressure and temperature. Further, combustion experiments were carried out by using a rapid compression and expansion machine. Here, characteristics of the evaporative mixed fuel spray were examined by shadowgraph photography.
Technical Paper

Power Transmitting Mechanism of a Dry Hybrid V-Belt for a CVT - Advanced Numerical Model Considering Block Tilting and Pulley Deformation -

A new discrete model was developed in order to analyze the power transmitting mechanisms of a dry hybrid V-belt CVT not only at steady states but also at transitional states where the speed ratio was changing. Block tilting in the pulley was considered in the advanced numerical model as well as pulley deformation due to pulley thrust. The validity of the present model was well confirmed by comparing the calculated results on transmitting and normal forces with the former experimental results. The calculated results showed that both block tilting and pulley deformation meaningfully affected the pulley thrust ratio between the driving and the driven pulleys.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling on Wall Wetted Fuel Film Profile and Mixture Preparation in Intake Port of SI Engine

In SI engines with port injection system, the injected fuel spray adheres surely on the port wall and the inlet valve, consequently, the spray-wall interaction process leads to the generation of unburned hydrocarbons and uncontrollable mixture formation. This paper deals with the fuel mixture preparation process including basic research on characteristics of the wall-wetted fuel film on a flat wall inside a constant volume vessel. In the experiments, iso-octane mixed with biacetyl as a tracer dopant was injected through a pintle type injector against a flat glass wall under the ambient conditions of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The thickness of the adhered fuel film on the wall was quantitatively measured by using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique, which provides 2-D distribution information with high special resolution as a function of the injection duration, the impingement distance from the injector to the wall, and the impingement angle against the wall.
Technical Paper

Study on Noise Generation Mechanism for Dry Hybrid Type CVT - Influence of Block Motions and Surface Roughness of Pulley on Sound Pressure

In order to reveal the mechanism of noise generation from CVT (Continuously Variable Transmissions) using a dry hybrid V-belt, the power spectrum of sound from a two-pulley CVT system and its variation with respect to rotational speed were measured. The experimental results showed that the frequency of the first peak in the power spectrum of the observed sound linearly increased with increasing the rotational speed of the pulley. The sound frequency of the first peak coincides with the frequency derived from the belt block pitch and the belt speed. Then, sound intensity analyses were conducted to identify noise sources of CVT. The experimental results reveal that unpleasant sound whose frequency is high occurs due to the collision or slip between CVT blocks and the pulley groove at the entrance and the exit of V-groove pulleys. Pulley surface roughness strongly affects the noise level. Additionally, the location of noise source varies due to surface roughness of the pulley groove.
Technical Paper

On-Board Measurement of Engine Performance and Emissions in Diesel Vehicle Operated with Bio-diesel Fuel

This paper describes the results of on-board measurement of engine performance and emissions in diesel vehicle operated with bio-diesel fuels. Here, two waste-cooking oils were investigated. One fuel is a waste-cooking oil methyl esters. This fuel is actually applied to a garbage collection vehicle with DI diesel engine (B100) and the city bus (B20; 80% gas oil is mixed into B100 in volume) as an alternative fuel of gas oil in Kyoto City. Another one is a fuel with ozone treatment by removing impurities from raw waste-cooking oils. Here, in order to improve the fuel properties, kerosene is mixed 70% volume in this fuel. This mixed fuel (i-BDF) is applied into several tracks and buses in Wakayama City. Then, these 3 bio-diesel fuels were applied to the on-board experiments and the results were compared with gas oil operation case.
Technical Paper

Rolling Tire Vibration Caused by Road Roughness

To reduce tire/road noise, it is important to examine the noise generation mechanism. Noise generated by a rolling tire is mainly emitted from the tread block. However, it has recently been reported that smooth tires also generate noise recently. This paper remarks on a smooth tire vibration by rolling on the road. The vibration of a rolling smooth tire is mainly vibration excited from the road surface. It is difficult to measure the input from the road surface, so we measured the tire's vibration at the leading and trailing edges. Scan Laser Doppler Vibrometers were employed to measure the vibration of the tire tread.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Soot Behavior in Diesel Flame

This paper describes the soot behavior in a diesel flame. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber with quiescent atmosphere. Parameters were the ambient temperature and the oxygen concentration. The integrated image of flame was taken, the natural emission of flame was detected and the KL factor was found by means of classical technique of laser light extinction. The results were discussed by use of the apparent rate of heat release. As a result, the ignition delay and the vortex with large scale generated in a diesel spray affect the soot behavior in a diesel flame.
Technical Paper

Modeling Atomization and Vaporization Processes of Flash-Boiling Spray

Flash-boiling occurs when a fuel is injected to a combustion chamber where the ambient pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel. It has been known that flashing is a favorable mechanism for atomizing liquid fuels. On the other hand, alternative fuels, such as gaseous fuels and oxygenated fuels, are used to achieve low exhaust emissions in recent years. In general, most of these alternative fuels have high volatility and flash-boiling takes place easily in fuel spray, when they are injected into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine under high pressure. In addition, fuel design concept the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels has been proposed in the previous study in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. It is found that the multicomponent fuel produce flash-boiling with an increase in the initial fuel temperature.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission and Fuel Economy with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Phenomenological Model

In this study, a system to perform a parameter search of heavy-duty diesel engines is proposed. Recently, it has become essential to use design methodologies including computer simulations for diesel engines that have small amounts of NOx and SOOT while maintaining reasonable fuel economy. For this purpose, multi-objective optimization techniques should be used. Multi-objective optimization problems have several types of objectives and they should be minimized or maximized at the same time. There is often a trade-off relationship between objects and derivation of the Pareto optimum solutions that express the relationship between the objects is one of the goals in this case. The proposed system consists of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) and phenomenological model. MOGA has strong search capability for Pareto optimum solutions. However, MOGA requires a large number of iterations.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Unsteady Synthetic Gas Jet

It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Permanent Deflection of Two-Layered Clutch Plates - - How to Reduce the Deflection of Two-Layered Clutch Plates -

Two-layered clutch plates manufactured by a new process using BMC show a significant deflection. Two methods solving such deflection were alternatively developed in this study. Changing the composition of the clutch plate appeared to be useless while after-curing on deflected clutch plates was effective. Thermal cycles or high pressure for after-cure did not reduce the deflection. However, applying after-cure with a sloped mold reduce the deflection without increasing the disk density.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Diesel Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy using Genetic Algorithms and Phenomenological Model

In this paper, the simulation of the multi-objective optimization problem of a diesel engine is performed using the phenomenological model of a diesel engine and the genetic algorithm. The target purpose functions are Specific fuel consumption, NOx, and Soot. The design variable is a shape of injection rate. In this research, we emphasize the following three topics by applying the optimization techniques to an emission problem of a diesel engine. Firstly, the multiple injections control the objectives. Secondly, the multi-objective optimization is very useful in an emission problem. Finally, the phenomenological model has a great advantage for optimization. The developed system is illustrated with the simulation examples.
Technical Paper

Fuel Design Concept for Low Emission in Engine Systems 4th Report: Effect of Spray Characteristics of Mixed Fuel on Exhaust Concentrations in Diesel Engine

In this study, the novel fuel design concept has been proposed in order to realize the low emission and combustion control in engine systems. In this fuel design concept, the mixed fuels with a high volatility fuel (gasoline or gaseous fuel components) and a low volatility fuel (gas oil or fuel oil components) are used in order to improve the spray characteristics by flash boiling. In our previous papers on this study, the fundamental characteristics of spray and its combustion of mixed fuel were reported. In this paper, heat release and exhaust emission (smoke, NOx and THC) characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operated with the mixed fuels were investigated under each load. The exhaust performance of diesel engine could be improved using mixed fuel, because fuel properties and spray characteristics were controlled by changing mixing fraction of the mixed fuel.
Technical Paper

New Concept on Lower Exhaust Emission of Diesel Engine

One of countermeasures for exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, especially, DI diesel engine, is the use of a super high pressure injection system with a small hole diameter. However, the system needs greater driving force than that with normal injection pressure, and its demerit is increase in NOx, although soot is decreasing. Then, authors propose the new concept on the simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot. The concept is that the utilization of flash boiling phenomenon in a diesel engine. The phenomenon can be realized by use of the injection of fuel oil with CO2 gas dissolved. Flash boiling facilitates the distinguished atomization of fuel oil and CO2 gas contributes to realizes the internal EGR during combustion. Fundamental information on the characteristics of a flash boiling spray of n-tridecane with CO2 gas dissolved is described in this paper, as a first step.
Technical Paper

Power Transmitting Mechanisms of CVT Using a Metal V-Belt and Load Distribution in the Steel Ring

An advanced numerical model is proposed to analyze the power transmitting mechanisms of a CVT using a metal V-belt. By using the present model, forces acting on the belt are well estimated not only at steady states but also during transitional states where the speed ratio is changing. The numerical results show that blocks are in compression in both strands when the speed ratio is rapidly shifted. A complementary model is also developed to analyze the load distribution among bands which form the ring. The load distribution in the ring is governed by the difference in coefficients of friction among elements.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Spray and Combustion Process by Applying CO2 Gas Dissolved Fuel

The CO2 gas dissolved fuel for the diesel combustion is effective to reduce the NOx emissions to achieve the internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) effect by fuel. This method has supplied EGR gas to the fuel side instead of supply EGR gas to the intake gas side. The fuel has followed specific characteristics for the diesel combustion. When the fuel is injected into the chamber in low pressure, this CO2 gas is separated from the fuel spray. The distribution characteristics of the spray are improved and the improvement of the thermal efficiency by reduction heat loss in the combustion chamber wall, and reduce soot emissions by the lean combustion is expected. Furthermore, this CO2 gas decreases the flame temperature. Further, it is anticipated to reduce NOx emissions by the spray internal EGR effect.