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Technical Paper

ENEA activities in fuel-cell-powered vehicles: Pressure vessels testing

2000-06-12
2000-05-0331
Among the research and development subjects of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) an important theme is the study of innovative vehicles with high energy efficiency and low emissions. Our programs are aimed at designing and setting up innovative vehicles with electric propulsion. These vehicles will be of two main types: battery-powered (pure- electric) and hybrid (fuel cell/battery and diesel/battery). At the moment, the fuel-cell technology applied to engines for vehicular applications displays broad margins of convenience over any known alternative engine for what concerns the compliance with any present and foreseeable environmental and energy saving regulations. On the other hand, the use of hydrogen, produced on board from fuels or stored as a liquid or a gas, raises new problems from the point of view of safety regulations and standards both in the design and use of vehicles and in the fuel production and distribution.
Technical Paper

0D-1D Coupling for an Integrated Fuel Economy Control Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Bus

2011-09-11
2011-24-0083
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are worldwide recognized as one of the best and most immediate opportunities to solve the problems of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and fossil fuels depletion, thanks to the high reliability of engines and the high efficiencies of motors. Moreover, as transport policy is becoming day by day stricter all over the world, moving people or goods efficiently and cheaply is the goal that all the main automobile manufacturers are trying to reach. In this context, the municipalities are performing their own action plans for public transport and the efforts in realizing high efficiency hybrid electric buses, could be supported by the local policies. For these reasons, the authors intend to propose an efficient control strategy for a hybrid electric bus, with a series architecture for the power-train.
Technical Paper

Design of the Storage System of a High Performance Hybrid Vehicle

2015-09-06
2015-24-2544
Within the “Industria 2015” Italian framework program, the HI-ZEV project has the aim to develop two high performance vehicles: one full electric and one hybrid. This paper deals with the electric energy storage (EES) design and testing of the hybrid vehicle. A model of the storage system has been developed, simulating each cell like an electric generator with more RC circuits in series. To take account of the heat transfer, a forced convection model has been used with the air speed proportional to the vehicle speed. The model had two calibration steps: the first has determined the electrical parameters of the model (open voltage circuit, internal resistances and capacitors); the second to calibrate the heat transfer model. The first calibration has been made on a climatic chamber at 23 °C discharging one single module with different constant currents from 5C (5 times the nominal capacity) to 25C and charging with currents in the range from 1C to 5C.
Journal Article

Experimental Test Campaign on a Battery Electric Vehicle: On-Road Test Results (Part 2)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1166
The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as on-road tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different on-road routes, ranging from 60 to 90 km each, with a driving time ranging from approximately one and half to two and half hours.
Journal Article

Experimental Test Campaign on a Battery Electric Vehicle: Laboratory Test Results (Part 1)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1167
The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as the laboratory tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different driving cycles (i.e. NEDC, WLTC and WMTC) at two different ambient temperatures (namely +25 °C and −7 °C), with and without the use of the cabin heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system.
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