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Technical Paper

ATV THERMAL CONTROL: Architecture and Jules Verne First Flight Results

2009-07-12
2009-01-2474
After several years of development the first European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) developed by ESA called Jules Verne completed successfully its seven-month ISS logistics mission. Launched the 9 March 2008 on an Ariane 5 launcher, the ATV performed the 3 April 2008 its rendezvous and docking to the International Space Station to which it remained attached for five months. This paper presents in a first part the ATV thermal control architecture based on a innovative active thermal control design built around 40 Variable Conductance Heat Pipes (VCHP) controlling the heat rejection and in a second part the in-flight thermal control behavior of the ATV Jules Verne observed during the seven months mission in both free flight and attached to ISS phases.
Technical Paper

Thermal - Power - Software Development and Validation on ATV Vehicle

2009-07-12
2009-01-2558
Jules Verne (JV) is the name of the first Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) developed by ASTRIUM Space Transportation on behalf of European Space Agency (ESA). JV was launched the 9 March 2008 by ARIANE 5 and performed the 3 April 2008 its automatic rendezvous and docking to the International Space Station (ISS) to which it remained attached up to the 5 September 2008. In the meantime, JV has provided the ISS with dry and fluid cargo and performed one refueling, four ISS re-boosts and one Debris Avoidance Maneuver. JV completed its successful mission by offloading waste and was destroyed during its re-entry the 29 September 2008. Generally, development and verification of Power management rely on classical thermal and electrical engineering.
Technical Paper

ATV Thermal Operations for Jules Verne First Flight

2009-07-12
2009-01-2556
Jules Verne – the first ATV model developed by ASTRIUM on behalf of ESA – has been controlled by CNES Toulouse Control Centre from March to September 2008. The Engineering Support Team (EST) was in charge to provide System expertise and to propose relevant recommendations in case of off nominal situations. This paper deals with the operations carried out by the EST Thermal position during the JV flight, such as: Identification of thermal anomalies triggered by onboard software or by ground monitoring; Analysis of actual situation from available flight data; Correction implemented thanks to a complete set of commands and procedures; Check on the on-board configuration after correction uploading.
Technical Paper

Thermal Testing of a Heat Switch for European Mars Rover

2009-07-12
2009-01-2573
A Heat Switch has been developed, namely a device able to autonomously regulate its own thermal conductance in function of the equipment dissipation and environmental heat sink conditions. It is based on a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) technology, with a passive bypass valve which diverts the flow to the Compensation Chamber when needed for regulation purposes. The target application is the potential use on a Mars Rover thermal control system. The paper recalls the Heat Switch design, and reports the results of an extensive test campaign on the ground demonstrator. The performance of the device was found extremely satisfying, and often exceeded the system requirements.
Technical Paper

Columbus Environmental Control System Tests - Verification of ATCS and ECLSS Performance

2005-07-11
2005-01-3117
Verification of the Integrated Overall Thermal Mathematical Model (IOTMM) is one of the last tasks in the thermal and environmental control area of the Columbus module. For this purpose a specific test covering as well thermal-hydraulic performance tests as Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) cabin temperature control functions has been defined and performed on the european Columbus Protoflight Model (PFM) in Bremen in 2003. This Environmental Control System test was successful for all Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) related thermal-hydraulic functions and could provide sufficient data for a proper IOTMM correlation. However, it failed to verify the ECLS related functions as cabin temperature control and ventilation. Data, which have been generated during this first test, could not be used for a successful IOTMM correlation related to ECLS subsystem performance and modelling.
Technical Paper

Improving the Columbus Integrated Overall Thermal Mathematical Model (IOTMM) Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

2005-07-11
2005-01-2796
The cabin space of the Columbus APM is well ventilated by air entering through multiple air diffusers and exiting via the return grid and hatch. Therefore, the heat transfers by bulk fluid motion and by convection to the walls need to be experimentally and/or numerically investigated and implemented in the thermal mathematical models (TMM) describing the cabin. CFD analysis provided key data on the thermal couplings due to convective heat transfer and bulk fluid motion for the thermal mathematical model, which in turn was used to correlate test data from an environmental control system test and to provide supplemental information on assumptions used in the lumped capacitance model. This paper presents the logic and results of the steady-state CFD analysis, the potential implementation of the results in a thermal mathematical model, and compares these results with test data obtained during a separate Columbus cabin ventilation qualification test.
Technical Paper

Columbus Launch Preparation - Final System ATCS Tests Summary and Lessons Learned

2008-06-29
2008-01-2033
Final preparation and configuration of the Columbus module at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) required the performance of system level tests with the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). These tests represented the very last system level activities having been concluded on the Columbus module before handover to NASA for space shuttle integration. Those very last tests, performed with the ATCS comprised the final ATCS Leakage Test, the final calibration and adjustment of the Water Flow Selection Valves (WFSV) and Water On/Off Valves (WOOV) as well as a sophisticated ATCS Residual Air Removal test. The above listed tests have been successfully performed and test data evaluated for verification closeout as well as input delivery for operational Flight Rules and Procedures. Some of the above mentioned tests have been performed the first time hence, a succeeding lessons learned collection followed in order to improve the perspectives of future tests.
Technical Paper

Columbus Active Thermal Control System - Final Integration, Test and Mission Preparation

2007-07-09
2007-01-3030
Columbus has been delivered to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in summer 2006 for final integration, test and mission preparation. In the frame of these “last” phase activities also the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) had to be finalized and prepared for the launch resp. mission. Due to unexpected late failures resp. malfunctions detected on component/unit level of the ATCS, refurbishment, integration / exchange of the relevant components and re-testing of their system level functions had to be done. Moreover, the still outstanding system level fluid leakage test of the ATCS had to be revised and completed. In addition to the required late refurbishment, integration and test activities, in certain cases also operational workarounds had to be evaluated. They should help to cope with similar contingency situations during operation of the ATCS on-orbit.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of the New Thermal Control System of the Automated Transfer Vehicle

2003-07-07
2003-01-2466
The Automated Transfer Vehicle will provide ISS with reboost, attitude control functions, with water, gas and propellant and with dry cargo. It is a 20 tons expendable vehicle launched by Ariane. It performs a rendezvous and docking with the Russian Segment. It remains attached up to 6 months before a destructive reentry. During PDR campaign, it was decided to change the ATV Thermal Control System from semi-passive (see reference 1) to active system to comply with electrical power budget and get the ATV power autonomy. This system is based on 40 Variable Conductance Heat Pipes controlling the heat rejection of the avionics items toward space. This paper presents the new thermal control system of the ATV and its verification and qualification logic.
Technical Paper

Current Status of the ESA FTIR-Based Multi-Component Monitoring System for Spacecraft Air Analysis

2000-07-10
2000-01-2302
This paper presents the status of ongoing BB studies for an optimized trace gas monitoring (TGM) system configured to simultaneously and quasi-online detect (quantitatively and qualitatively) 30 different trace gases in manned spacecraft. The system principle relies on the detection of molecule absorption lines in the infrared being converted into a measured spectrum by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer. The work is based on 10 years study phases aiming now towards performance demonstration on unknown gas mixtures and an in-flight demonstration on Space Shuttle or ISS. The theoretical background, sensor combinations, SW principle descriptions and multi-module monitoring strategies have been reported earlier (please refer to reference [1] - [4], [6]).
Technical Paper

European Polar Platform ENVISAT-1 Mission: Thermal Design and Payload Thermal Accommodation

1994-06-01
941572
The European Polar Platform is a remote sensing satellite with the primary objective, in the ENVISAT-1 P/L configuration, to monitor and study the earth and its environment. The platform thermal design is passive assisted by heaters. Externally mounted P/Ls are responsible for their-own thermal control and are required to be thermally decoupled from the platform. The P/L thermal design is largely dependent on their detectors required temperature and stability. A wide range of design solutions is found: Stirling cycle coolers, Peltier elements, passive radiant coolers, heat pipe radiators. This paper describes the overall thermal design of the platform and the P/Ls, the principles of the selected ENVISAT-1 P/L accommodation, the relevant P/L to platform I/F design solutions and outlines the platform and P/Ls thermal verification logic.
Technical Paper

Integrated CO2 and Humidity Control by Membrane Gas Absorption

1997-07-14
972560
In a harmonized ESA/NIVR project the performance of membrane gas absorption for the simultaneous removal of carbon dioxide and moisture has been determined experimentally at carbon dioxide and humidity concentration levels representative for spacecraft conditions. Performance data at several experimental conditions have been collected. Removal of moisture can be controlled by the temperature of the absorption liquid. Removal of carbon dioxide is slightly affected by the temperature of the absorption liquid. Based on these measurements a conceptual design for a carbon dioxide and humidity control system for the Crew Transport Vehicle (CTV) is made. For the regeneration step in this design a number of assumptions have been made. The multifunctionality of membrane gas absorption makes it possible to combine a number of functions in one compact system.
Technical Paper

Thermal Control Architecture of the Automated Transfer Vehicle

1998-07-13
981778
The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a European Space Agency autonomous, expendable logistic transportation system for Low Earth Orbit. The ATV will be launched by Ariane 5 and its mission is to contribute to the logistic servicing of the International Space Station: via the delivery of a cargo (crew items, scientific experiments, spare parts..) as well as of fluids such as propellant, water and compressed air via the provision of an extra service consisting of retrieving the station wastes when departing (replacing the upcoming cargo) and getting rid of them through the final destructive atmospheric re-entry of the ATV itself via the contribution to the orbit control of ISS by providing a reboost and attitude control capability to the ISS. The ATV consists of a Spacecraft and an Integrated Cargo Carrier. The Spacecraft includes all subsystems necessary for the automated flight to the ISS and for the reboost, including the propellant tanks and the thrusters.
Technical Paper

Thermal Control System of the Automated Transfer Vehicle

2000-07-10
2000-01-2307
The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a European Space Agency (ESA) servicing and logistics transportation system for the periodic re-supply of the International Space Station (ISS). The ATV will be launched by Ariane 5 and will provide the following services to the ISS: refuelling of the ISS (transfer of fuel from ATV to the station), reboost of the ISS (increasing the station’s orbit altitude, using the ATV’s propulsion system), delivery of cargo such as compressed air, water and pressurised payloads to the station, destruction of waste from the station. The ATV is composed of the so-called Spacecraft (SC) and an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC). The Spacecraft includes the propulsion, reboost and attitude control systems, the avionics and the solar generator system.
Technical Paper

MELFI Cooling Performance Characterization and Verification

2000-07-10
2000-01-2308
The Minus Eighty (Degrees Celsius) Laboratory Freezer for the International Space Station (MELFI) is one of the freezers developed by ESA on behalf of NASA. Peculiar requirements for that facility are the long-term storage at low temperature, the rapid freezing of specimen to the required temperature, the large cold volume (300 l) and the low power consumption. To verify those requirements before the manufacturing of the flight hardware, a dedicated test campaign was performed on a ground model. This paper will start with a system overview, showing the main features of MELFI. The test set-up as well as their results will be presented and discussed, with particular emphasis on the methods used to predict the on-orbit (0-gravity) behaviour, by avoiding the sample internal convection and dewar internal convection during the test execution.
Technical Paper

Thermal Balance Testing of the European Robotic Arm

2000-07-10
2000-01-2496
As part of the European contribution to the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS), the European Robotic Arm (ERA) is designed under contract of the European Space Agency by Fokker Space as the Prime contractor. The particularly challenging aspect of the ERA thermal design is to enable ERA operation under all possible in-orbit thermal environmental conditions which are to be experienced throughout its 10 year life. These conditions can be between extreme cold without sunlight for hibernation to extreme hot with ERA operating in full sunlight in close vicinity to a large station item, for instance, the solar arrays. First a short description of the ERA system is given with a summary of the main thermal design features. The system level thermal balance test on the ERA Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) is intended to validate the system level thermal model, which consists of the subsystem thermal models as supplied by the respective subcontractors.
Technical Paper

First Use of ECOSIM in Air Management Systems

1992-07-01
921292
ECOSIM is a software tool for the simulation of Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems which has been developed for the European Space Agency. A preliminary model of the Hermes Air Management System has been developed during the ECOSIM testing in order to assess the functionality of the software and to verify its results with those obtained from previous simulation tools. The model represents the Hermes cabin with its crew and it includes submodels for the sub-systems performing the following functions: Temperature and Humidity Control. Total Pressure and Composition Control. Air revitalisation. The interactions between these different subsystem are taken into account by the model, while many of the previous simulations made assumptions to decouple the different subsystems (e.g: a constant cabin temperature has been assumed during cabin depressurization transients, to decouple the pressure control section from the air conditioning section).
Technical Paper

Hubble Space Telescope Solar Cell Module Thermal Cycle Test

1992-08-03
929243
The Hubble space telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low-Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 °C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules.
Technical Paper

Fully Operational FTIR Based Multi-Component Gas Analysis System for Spacecraft Cabin Air Monitoring

1998-07-13
981568
An advanced trace gas monitoring system for long duration manned space missions - such as the International Space Station - is discussed. The system proposed is a combination of a Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and a distributed ‘Smart Gas Sensor system (SGS). In a running multi-phase programme [1,2] the FTIR technology, applying novel analysis methods, has been demonstrated to handle multi-component gas measurements, including identification and quantification of 20 important trace gases in a mixture. In the current phase 3, initiated end of 1997, a fully operational FTIR technology demonstration model will be manufactured and tested. The SGS consists of an array of twenty electrically conductive polymer sensors supplemented with an array of quartz crystal microbalance sensors. The technology has been tested on the Russian MIR space station and is currently miniaturized into a second-generation flight model.
Technical Paper

DOMEX-2 Thermal Design, Testing and Commissioning in Support to the SMOS Mission

2009-07-12
2009-01-2375
In recent years there is growing interest, on the part of the remote sensing community, in using the Antarctic area, for calibrating and validating data of satellite-borne microwave radiometers. With a view to the launching of the ESA's SMOS satellite, which is a satellite designed to observe soil moisture over the Earth landmasses, salinity over the oceans and to provide observations over regions of ice and snow, an experimental activity called DOMEX was started at Dome-C Antarctica. The main scientific objectives of this activity are to provide microwave data for SMOS satellite calibration and in particular: the continuous acquisition of a calibrated time-series of microwave and thermal Infrared (8-14micron) emission over an entire Austral annual cycle, the acquisition of a long time-series of snow measurements and the acquisition of relevant local atmospheric measurements from the local weather station. This paper is focusing on the thermal design, analysis and testing of Domex-2.
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