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Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions and Particulate Size Distribution for Diesel, Biodiesel and Cooking Oil from a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

Rape oil, as used in fresh cooking oil (FCO), and the methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil (WCOB100) were tested as 100% biofuels (B100) on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under steady state conditions. The exhaust emissions were measured and compared to those for conventional low sulphur (<50ppm) diesel fuel. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Euro2 Phaser Engine, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The engine out gaseous emissions results for WCOB100 showed a large decrease in CO and HC emissions, but a small increase in NOx emissions compared to diesel. However, for FCO the CO and HC increased relative to WCOB100 and CO was higher than for diesel, indicating deterioration in fuel/air mixing. The particulate matter (PM) emissions for WCOB100 were similar to those for diesel at the 23kw condition, but greatly reduced at 47kw. The FCO produced higher engine out PM at both power conditions due to a higher volatile organic fraction (VOF).
Technical Paper

Influence of Oil Age on Particulate Size Distributions with an On Line Oil Recycler from an IDI Passenger Car Diesel Engine

Mass weighted size distributions of particulate emissions as a function of oil age were investigated using a set of Anderson Impactors on an IDI passenger car engine test. This engine was fitted with an on-line bypass lubricating oil recycler aiming to extend the oil life, reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. A stop start test cycle was used with a cold start each time and a typical cycle period of 2∼3 hours. The whole test was carried out for nearly 500 hours. The first 310 hours of testing were with the oil recycler fitted and thereafter the test continued with the oil recycler disconnected. The results show that 60∼80% of mass particulates were smaller than 1.1 μm in aerodynamic diameter with the oil recycler fitted and this percentage was reduced to 40∼60% after disconnection of the oil recycler. The changes in size distribution with oil age mainly happened in the size ranges of 1.1∼0.65 μm, 0.65∼0.43 μm and <0.43 μm.