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Technical Paper

Optimum Diesel Fuel for Future Clean Diesel Engines

2007-01-23
2007-01-0035
Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper

PremAir® Catalyst System - OBD Concepts

2001-03-05
2001-01-1302
Traditional approaches to pollution control have been to develop benign, non-polluting processes or to abate emissions at the tailpipe or stack before release to the atmosphere. A new technology called PremAir® Catalyst Systems1 takes a different approach and directly reduces ambient, ground level ozone. For mobile applications, the new system involves coating a heat exchange device in a vehicle, such as the radiator or air conditioning condenser. The catalyst converts ozone to oxygen as ozone-containing ambient air passes over the coated surface of the radiator. The technology is relatively simple and provides a positive benefit to the environment while being totally passive to the end user application. Volvo Car Corporation was the first automobile manufacturer to voluntarily introduce the technology on their S80 luxury sedan. Nissan Motor Corporation is also using the technology on their new Sentra CA (Clean Air) certified PZEV vehicle for California.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment of Volkswagen FSI Fuel Stratified Injection Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0346
For substantial reduction of fuel consumption of their vehicle fleet, Volkswagen AG has decided to develop spark-ignition engines with direct fuel injection. To launch this new engine concept with stratified lean operation mode while at the same time meeting the stringent EU IV emission standards, it was necessary to develop a suitable exhaust gas aftertreatment system. This was achieved as part of an intensive co-operation between Volkswagen AG and OMG, formerly dmc2 Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG. The paper describes the demands for exhaust gas aftertreatment due to lean burn operation. In addition the main development steps of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Volkswagen FSI engines and catalyst durability over vehicle lifetime are discussed. Focus is laid on the catalyst system design and coating variations. Volkswagen developed a new closed-loop emission control management system which uses NOx-sensor signals for the first time worldwide.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Study of Factors Influencing the Performance of a NOx Trap in a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2000-10-16
2000-01-2911
A NOx trap catalyst was evaluated in a light-duty diesel engine bench under steady-state speed/load conditions with alternating lean and rich exhaust streams. The NOx conversion was correlated with several engine operating and control parameters, such as speed, lean / rich timing and catalyst temperature. The NOx conversion is a result of balance between stored NOx in a lean stream and the quantity of reductant applied in a rich transient pulse. The conversion is inversely proportional to the lean / rich ratio, R, (at R< 17) and engine speed. At a given speed and lean/rich ratio, the conversion is proportional to the catalyst inlet temperature. If the temperature is too high, thermal NOx release may decrease the overall NOx conversion. With a fully regenerated NOx trap catalyst, its cumulative NOx storage, at a given trapping period (or an instantaneous NOx trapping efficiency), is proportional to engine speed.
Technical Paper

PremAir® Catalyst System* - Long-term On-road Aging Results

2000-10-16
2000-01-2925
Recently Volvo Car Corporation introduced the new PremAir® catalyst system from Engelhard Corporation on their S80 luxury sedan and the new V70 estate wagon. In this paper, performance results of this catalyst system after long-term mileage accumulation will be presented. Urban taxi vehicles were used to test the catalyst over 110,000 miles. The rate of deactivation in long-term catalyst performance was found to be dependent on the radiator design, and was least for the radiator design with the highest total geometric surface area. Subsequently, a new catalyst version was developed in order to minimize the deactivation rate. This new catalyst has been evaluated under similar taxi driving conditions over 80,000 miles, and has shown improved durability performance.
Technical Paper

Understanding Sulfur Interaction Key to OBD of Low Emission Vehicles

2000-10-16
2000-01-2929
As the automobiles move closer to the ULEV, ULEV-2 and SULEV requirements, OBD (on board diagnostic) will become a design challenge. The present OBD II designs involve the use of dual oxygen sensors to monitor the hydrocarbon performance of the catalytic converter. The aim of this study was twofold: to determine the interaction of fuel sulfur and ceria in the catalyst formulation on the performance of a Pd/Rh TWC (three-way catalyst) to elucidate the sulfur and ceria interaction on the ability of the Pd/Rh catalyst to monitor the state of the catalyst relative to hydrocarbon activity and therefore it's utility in the OBD system. Catalyst samples were aged on a spark ignited engine using a “fuel cut” engine aging cycle operated for 50 hours. Maximum catalyst temperatures during this aging cycle were 850-870°C. The effect of sulfur was determined by measuring aged catalyst performance using both indolene (∼100 ppm sulfur) and premium unleaded gasoline (∼350 ppm sulfur).
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: A Fleet Start-Up Experience

2000-10-16
2000-01-2821
Previous studies have shown that regenerating particulate filters are very effective at reducing particulate matter emissions from diesel engines. Some particulate filters are passive devices that can be installed in place of the muffler on both new and older model diesel engines. These passive devices could potentially be used to retrofit large numbers of trucks and buses already in service, to substantially reduce particulate matter emissions. Catalyst-type particulate filters must be used with diesel fuels having low sulfur content to avoid poisoning the catalyst. A project has been launched to evaluate a truck fleet retrofitted with two types of passive particulate filter systems and operating on diesel fuel having ultra-low sulfur content. The objective of this project is to evaluate new particulate filter and fuel technology in service, using a fleet of twenty Class 8 grocery store trucks. This paper summarizes the truck fleet start-up experience.
Technical Paper

Vw Lupo, the WorldS First 3-Liter Car

2000-11-01
2000-01-C044
After the success of the 4-cylinder 1.9-liter TDI and SDI direct-injection diesel engines in the Passat, Jetta and Polo classes, a new 3-cylinder TDI has been developed for use in the "Lupo 3L,' a compact car with a fuel consumption of 3 liters per 100 km. A new injection system with unit injectors, together with a fully electronically controlled engine management system featuring drive-by-wire- technology, a turbocharger with variable turbine geometry and a fully automated mechanical gearbox and clutch, for the first time ensures the potential to meet the stringent D4 exhaust emissions level and to achieve excellent fuel economy. The wheel-torque based engine and gearbox management systems optimize engine operation in terms of efficiency and emissions.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

Locally Resolved Measurement of Gas-Phase Temperature and EGR-Ratio in an HCCI-Engine and Their Influence on Combustion Timing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0182
Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Technical Paper

Application of Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) for NVH Analysis of a Passenger Car

2005-05-16
2005-01-2514
The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.
Technical Paper

Effect of HPDC Parameters on the Performance of Creep Resistant Alloys MRI153M and MRI230D

2005-04-11
2005-01-0334
The growing demand for the use of magnesium alloys in the production of automotive powertrain components led to the development of creep resistant diecasting alloys MRI153M and MRI230D. The present paper addresses the main high-pressure die casting parameters, which significantly affect the performance of components, produced of these new alloys. A systematic study was carried out in order to correlate die-casting parameters to the performance of new alloys. The results obtained clearly indicated that optimization of molten metal and die temperatures, injection profile parameters and lubrication mixtures allowed to improve the die castability and service properties of the new alloys and produce high performance components with intricate geometry. This was manifested by production of several practical demonstrators such as gearboxes, oil pans, oil pumps and crankcases.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1918
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1606
In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor (PACR) Approach to Lean NOx Abatement: The Relative Reducibility of NO and NO2 using #2 Diesel fuel as the Reductant

2000-10-16
2000-01-2962
The plasma assisted catalytic reactor (PACR) approach to lean NOx abatement is a two step process. The non-thermal plasma oxidizes the engine out NO to NO2, which is then reduced to N2 over a catalyst using a hydrocarbon reductant. Whereas it was once believed that the plasma itself directly reduces NOx to N2, it has been shown that the plasma's principle function is to oxidize NO to NO2. This is accomplished without oxidizing SO2 to SO3, resulting in lower sulfate particulate when compared to standard lean NOx catalysis using platinum or reducible oxide catalysts. We have performed reactor studies comparing the relative reducibility of NO2 and NO in a synthetic diesel exhaust using diesel fuel as the hydrocarbon reductant, with attention to time-on stream behavior and determination of NOx reversibly adsorbed on the catalyst. We find that at 200°C, 50% of the NO2 disappearance over Na-ZSM5 is attributable to reversible adsorption on the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Benefits of GTL Fuel in Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters

2009-06-15
2009-01-1934
Synthetic fuels are expected to play an important role for future mobility, because they can be introduced seamlessly alongside conventional fuels without the need for new infrastructure. Thus, understanding the interaction of GTL fuels with modern engines, and aftertreatment systems, is important. The current study investigates potential benefits of GTL fuel in respect of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Experiments were conducted on a Euro 4 TDI engine, comparing the DPF response to two different fuels, normal diesel and GTL fuel. The investigation focused on the accumulation and regeneration behavior of the DPF. Results indicated that GTL fuel reduced particulate formation to such an extent that the regeneration cycle was significantly elongated, by ∼70% compared with conventional diesel. Thus, the engine could operate for this increased time before the DPF reached maximum load and regeneration was needed.
Technical Paper

The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation

2008-10-06
2008-01-2471
An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

2010-05-05
2010-01-1488
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

New ways of fluid flow control in automobiles: Experience with exhaust gas aftertreatmetn control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0299
Flow control by fluidic devices - without moving parts - offers advantages of reliability and low cost. As an example of their automobile application based on authors'' long-time experience the paper describes a fluidic valve for switching exhaust gas flow in a NOx absorber into a by-pass during regeneration phase. The unique feature here is the fluidic valve being of monostable and of axisymmetric design, integrated into the absorber body. After development in aerodynamic laboratory, the final design was tested on engine test stand and finally in a car. This proved that the performance under high temperature and pulsation existing in exhaust systems is reliable and promising. Fluidic valves require, however, close matching with aerodynamic load. To optimize the exhaust system layout for the whole load-speed range and reaching minimum counter- pressure, both the components of exhaust system and control strategy have to be properly adopted.
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