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Journal Article

Normal Pedal Activation in Real World Situations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0551
This study reports pedal activation forces and typical acceleration and deceleration rates during everyday driving activities. Twenty subjects of varying ages, height and weight participated in the study. Each subject was asked to drive a four-door sedan along 2.3 miles of roadway in DuPage County, Illinois. Vehicle speed, acceleration, and position were measured using a global positioning system that was synchronized with force data collected from load cells rigidly mounted on the vehicle's accelerator and brake pedals. Pedal forces and vehicle behavior were measured during common driving tasks such as, shifting the transmission into reverse, backing out of a parking spot, and, making a right hand turn from a stop sign. Our data suggests that simple vehicle dynamic tasks produced in experimental settings may not reliably reproduce vehicle and occupant behavior.
Journal Article

Timber Utility Pole Fracture Mechanics Due to Non-Deformable and Deformable Moving Barrier Impacts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0288
The energy dissipated by the fracture of wooden utility poles during vehicle impacts is not currently well documented, is dependent upon non-homogenous timber characteristics, and can therefore be difficult to quantify. While there is significant literature regarding the static and quasi-static properties of wood as a building material, there is a narrow body of literature regarding the viscoelastic properties of timber used for utility poles. Although some theoretical and small-scale testing research has been published, full-scale testing has not been conducted for the purpose of studying the vehicle-pole interaction during impacts. The parameters that define the severity of the impact include the acceleration profile, vehicle velocity change, and energy dissipation. Seven full-scale crash tests were conducted at Exponent's Arizona test facility utilizing both moving deformable and non-deformable barriers into new wooden utility poles.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Non-Injurious Head Accelerations of Young Children

2014-04-01
2014-01-0493
Few studies have investigated pediatric head injury mechanics with subjects below the age of 8 years. This paper presents non-injurious head accelerations during various activities for young children (2 to 7 years old). Eight males and five females aged 2-7 years old were equipped with a head sensor package and head kinematics were measured while performing a series of playground-type activities. The maximum peak resultant accelerations were 29.5 G and 2745 rad/s2. The range of peak accelerations was 2.7 G to 29.5 G. The range of peak angular velocities was 4.2 rad/s to 22.4 rad/s. The range of peak angular accelerations was 174 rad/s2 to 2745 rad/s2. Mean peak resultant values across all participants and activities were 13.8 G (range 2.4 G to 13.8 G), 12.8 rad/s (range 4.0 rad/s to 12.8 rad/s), and 1375 rad/s2 (range 105 rad/s2 to 1375 rad/s2) for linear acceleration, angular velocity, and angular acceleration, respectively.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Ejection Risk and Injury Distribution Using Data from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0491
Three years of data from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) were analyzed to identify accidents involving heavy trucks (GVWR >10,000 lbs.). Risk of rollover and ejection was determined as well as belt usage rates. Risk of ejection was also analyzed based on rollover status and belt use. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used as an injury rating system for the involved vehicle occupants. These data were further analyzed to determine injury distribution based on factors such as crash type, ejection, and restraint system use. The maximum AIS score (MAIS) was analyzed and each body region (head, face, spine, thorax, abdomen, upper extremity, and lower extremity) was considered for an AIS score of three or greater (AIS 3+). The majority of heavy truck occupants in this study were belted (71%), only 2.5% of occupants were completely or partially ejected, and 28% experienced a rollover event.
Journal Article

A Simple Method to Insure Bus-to-Bus Safety in Dual-Voltage Automotive Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0244
In some automotive electrical systems, it is advantageous to use power supplies and loads at two or more voltages. Often it is desirable to retain the single wire power architecture, with the car body providing the return circuit. A major difficulty in achieving this end is the matter of dealing with the possibility of a short circuit between feed wires at different voltages. It can be shown that source-side fuses cannot be relied upon to return the system to a safe state in all cases. Substantial effort was applied to this problem in the early years of the 21st century, but the results were less than completely satisfactory. Using entirely separate cable harnesses for each voltage, with physically separated routing, minimizes the risk of such a short occurring in the harness.
Journal Article

Neck Loads in Playground Activities in a Pediatric Population

2012-04-16
2012-01-0560
Neck injury assessment reference values (IARVs) and tolerance values for children have been specified using animal data compared to the loading of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). However, there is a paucity of data regarding the neck loads generated during non-injurious situations for children. Six males and six females aged 8-11 years old were equipped with a validated head sensor package and upper neck loads and moments were calculated from measured head kinematics while performing a series of playground-type activities. The maximum forces were 686 N in compression, 177 N in tension, and 471 N in shear, the maximum moments were 18.2 N-m in flexion, 6.0 N-m in extension, 6.4 N-m in lateral bending, and 12.1 N-m in axial twist. Female subjects exhibited similar loads and moments to their male counterparts, but larger Nij values. The peak loads measured in this study are larger than or comparable to those undertaken with adult subjects participating in similar activities.
Journal Article

Acceleration and Braking Performance of School Buses

2012-04-16
2012-01-0593
There is a limited amount of data currently available on the acceleration and braking performances of school buses. This paper analyzes the braking performance of various Type A and Type C school buses with hydraulic and air brakes. The effect of ABS and Non-ABS systems as well as driver experience is discussed. A comparison with passenger car braking performance is presented. The acceleration of a school bus is also presented. Evaluations of “normal” and “rapid” accelerations are presented for Type A and Type B buses. A comparison with commonly used acceleration values for various vehicles is presented.
Journal Article

Validation of Sled Tests for Far-Side Occupant Kinematics Using MADYMO

2010-04-12
2010-01-1160
Far-side occupants are not addressed in current government regulations around the world even though they account for up to 40% of occupant HARM in side impact crashes. Consequently, there are very few crash tests with far-side dummies available to researchers. Sled tests are frequently used to replicate the dynamic conditions of a full-scale crash test in a controlled setting. However, in far-side crashes the complexity of the occupant kinematics is increased by the longer duration of the motion and by the increased rotation of the vehicle. The successful duplication of occupant motion in these crashes confirms that a sled test is an effective, cost-efficient means of testing and developing far-side occupant restraints or injury countermeasures.
Technical Paper

Speeds of Child Cyclists

2019-04-02
2019-01-0419
Many published studies have characterized walking and running speeds of young children. However, there is a paucity of data on the cycling speeds of very young children (4 to 5 years old). The purpose of this study was to obtain an estimate of cycling speed for boys and girls both who are learning to ride bicycles (i.e., younger children who still ride with training wheels) and who have already learned to ride bicycles (i.e., slightly older children who no longer use training wheels). A sample of 32 child riders (17 boys, 15 girls; 17 four-year-olds who still ride with training wheels, 15 five-year-olds who do not) were asked to ride a short pre-defined distance at their usual speed when riding, and again at their highest speed. We found that while age and experience can differentiate riders, there were only small differences between boys’ and girls’ speeds in either age group.
Technical Paper

Lane-Keeping Behavior and Cognitive Load with Use of Lane Departure Warning

2017-03-28
2017-01-1407
Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems, along with other types of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), are becoming more common in passenger vehicles, with the general aim of improving driver safety through automation of various aspects of the driving task. Drivers have generally reported satisfaction with ADAS with the exception of LDW systems, which are often rated poorly or even deactivated by drivers. One potential contributor to this negative response may be an increase in the cognitive load associated with lane-keeping when LDW is in use. The present study sought to examine the relationship between LDW, lane-keeping behavior, and concurrent cognitive load, as measured by performance on a secondary task. Participants drove a vehicle equipped with LDW in a demarcated lane on a closed-course test track with and without the LDW system in use over multiple sessions.
Technical Paper

Accelerator-to-Brake Pedal Transition Movements during On-Road Stopping in an Older Population

2017-03-28
2017-01-1396
Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies show that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in older drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to variable traffic light conditions. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
Technical Paper

Driver Reactions in a Vehicle with Collision Warning and Mitigation Technology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1411
Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS) technologies have been introduced as the automotive industry moves towards autonomous driving. One ADAS technology with the potential for substantial safety benefits is forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM), which is designed to warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, potentiate driver braking responses, and apply the vehicle's brakes autonomously. Although the proliferation of FCWM technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how these systems affect a driver's overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear. Exponent conducted a closed-course evaluation of drivers' reactions to an imminent forward collision event while driving an FCWM-equipped vehicle, either with or without a secondary task administered through a hands-free cell phone.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Rider Kinematics during Low and High Speed Turning Maneuvers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0536
Motorcycle stability during a variety of maneuvers is maintained through both rider steering input and body interactions with the seat, tank, footrests, and handlebars. Exploring how rider-vehicle interactions impact vehicle control is critical to creating a comprehensive understanding of motorcycle handling. The present study aims to understand how experienced motorcycle riders influence motorcycle dynamics by characterizing center of pressure (COP) location, force applied at the seat, rider lean angle and offset relative to the motorcycle, and steering angle for various maneuvers. A course was defined on Exponent’s Test and Engineering Center (TEC) track and skid pad that included sections of straight riding, navigating a banked curve, and sharp turning (low speed U-turns, 90 degree turn after a stop, and obstacle avoidance). The task influenced rider response and, in particular, lateral COP location at the seat.
Technical Paper

Head and Neck Loading Conditions over a Decade of IIHS Rear Impact Seat Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-1227
Rear-end impacts are the most common crash scenario in the United States. Although automated vehicle (AV) technologies, such as frontal crash warning (FCW) and automatic emergency braking (AEB), are mitigating and preventing rear-end impacts, the technology is only gradually being introduced and currently has only limited effectiveness. Accordingly, there is a need to evaluate the current state of passive safety technologies, including the performance of seatbacks and head restraints. The objective of this study was to examine trends in head and neck loading during rear impact testing in new vehicle models over the prior decade. Data from 601 simulated rear impact sled tests (model years 2004 to 2018) conducted as a part of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Vehicle Seat/Head Restraint Evaluation Protocol were obtained.
Technical Paper

Tractor-Semitrailer Driver and Sleeping Compartment Occupant Responses to Low-Speed Impacts

2012-04-16
2012-01-0566
Low-speed collisions between tractor-semitrailers and passenger vehicles may result in large areas of visible damage to the passenger vehicle, but often produce limited damage to the tractor-semitrailer. Despite this, such accidents may lead to assertions of serious injury to the tractor driver and/or sleeper compartment occupant. Research regarding the impact environment and resulting injury potential of the occupants during these types of impacts is limited. This research investigated driver and sleeper compartment occupant responses to relatively low-speed and low-acceleration impact events. Five crash tests involving impact between a tractor-semitrailer and a passenger car were conducted. The test vehicles were a van semitrailer pulled by a tractor and three identical mid-sized sedans. The occupants of the tractor included a human driver and an un-instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile-male anthropomorphic test device (ATD).
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Rider Inputs During Typical Maneuvers

2020-04-14
2020-01-1000
The purpose of this research is to document representative examples of control inputs and body positioning experienced riders use to control a motorcycle through maneuvers representative of those encountered during real-world operation. There is limited publicly available data that tracks the magnitude or direction of steering head rotation, steering torque input, etc. used by a rider to initiate and exit a turn as well as maintaining directional control during maneuvers ranging from slow parking lot turns to high speed lane changes. Using Exponent’s Test and Engineering Center (TEC) track and skid pad, a course was defined that included several maneuvers at various speeds and radii. A previous paper [1] investigated the influence of rider kinematics (weight shift) on motorcycle control.
Technical Paper

Update on Second-Row Children Responses in Rear and Frontal Crashes with a Focus on the Potential Effect of Stiffening Front Seat Structures

2020-04-14
2020-01-1215
NHTSA has recently been petitioned to address the protection of second-row children in rear crashes due front seatback performance. The protection of children is important. However, it is more complex than assessing front seat performance in rear impacts. Viano, Parenteau (2008 [1]) analyzed cases of serious-to-fatally injured (MAIS 3+F) children up to 7 years old in the second row in rear impacts involving 1990+ model year vehicles using 1997-2005 NASS-CDS. They observed that intrusion was an important factor pushing the child forward into the back of the front seat, B-pillar or other front structure. To help assess whether stiffening the front seats would be beneficial for second-row child safety, the 2008 study was updated using more recent data and model year vehicles. In the present study, 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data were analyzed for serious-to-fatally (MAIS 3+F) injured 0- to 7-year old children in the second row with 1994+ model year vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Obesity on Rollover Ejection and Injury Risks

2020-04-14
2020-01-1219
Obesity rates are increasing among the general population. This study investigates the effect of obesity on ejection and injury risk in rollover crashes through analysis of field accident data contained in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database. The study involved front outboard occupants of age 15+ years in 1994+ model year vehicle rollover crashes. Occupants were sorted into two BMI groups, normal (18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Complete and partial ejection risks were first assessed by seating location relative to roll direction and belt use. The risk of serious-to-fatal injuries (MAIS 3+F) in non-ejected occupants were then evaluated. The overall risk for complete ejection was 2.10% ± 0.43% when near-sided and 2.65% ± 0.63% when far-sided, with a similar risk for both the normal and obese BMI groups.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Active and Conventional Head Restraints on Front Seat Occupant Responses in Rear Impacts

2020-04-14
2020-01-1217
This study assesses front seat occupant responses in rear impacts with active head restraints (AHR) and conventional head restraints (CHR) using field accident data and test data from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). 2003-2015 NASS-CDS data were analyzed to determine injury rates in 1997+ model year seats equipped with AHR and CHR. Results indicated that less than 4% of occupants were in seats equipped with AHR. Crashes of delta-V <24 km/h accounted for more than 70% of all exposed front seat occupants, irrespective of head restraint design. Rear crashes with a delta-V < 24 km/h included 35.6% fewer occupants who sustained a MAIS 1-2 injury overall and 26.4% fewer who sustained a MAIS 1-2 cervical injury in vehicles equipped with AHR compared to CHR. In IIHS 16 km/h rear sled tests, the biomechanical response of an instrumented BioRID was evaluated on seats with AHR and CHR. HIC15 and concussion risk were calculated from head acceleration data.
Technical Paper

Injury Rates by Crash Severity, Belt Use and Head Restraint Type and Performance in Rear Impacts

2020-04-14
2020-01-1223
This study assesses the exposure distribution and injury rate (MAIS 4+F) to front-outboard non-ejected occupants by crash severity, belt use and head restraint type and damage in rear impacts using 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data. Rear crashes with a delta V <24 km/h (15 mph) accounted for 71% of all exposed occupants. The rate of MAIS 4+F increased with delta V and was higher for unbelted than belted occupants with a rate of 11.7% ± 5.2% and 6.0% ± 1.5% respectively in 48+ km/h (30 mph) delta V. Approximately 12% of front-outboard occupants were in seats equipped with an integral head restraint and 86% were with an adjustable head restraint, irrespective of crash severity. The overall injury rate was 0.14% ± 0.05% and 0.22% ± 0.06%, respectively. It was higher in cases where the head restraint was listed as “damaged”. Thirteen cases involving a lap-shoulder belted occupant in a front-outboard seat in which “damage” to the adjustable head restraint was identified.
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